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The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has ...

Russia’s war on Ukraine: NATO response

Rövid áttekintés 22-04-2022

NATO has condemned Russia’s war on Ukraine in the strongest possible terms, and calls it ‘the biggest security threat in a generation’. The Alliance calls on Russia to cease hostilities immediately, withdraw all its forces from Ukraine and work towards a peaceful diplomatic solution. To avoid direct confrontation with Russia, NATO has made clear that it will not deploy forces to Ukraine, which is not a NATO member, nor will it enforce a no-fly zone over Ukraine. The delivery of weapons and equipment ...

The coronavirus crisis has demonstrated not only that the European Union faces a variety of risks, and that those disparate risks are inter-linked, but that the response to such challenges to the Union - even in areas in which the EU does not have explicit competence - is stronger with the Union and its Member States acting together. Russia's war on Ukraine, which was launched while this study was being drafted, shows us not just the added value of concerted action by the Union but also the ability ...

Third-country participation in EU defence

Rövid áttekintés 31-03-2022

Cooperation with third countries is embedded in several dimensions of EU security and defence policy. The Strategic Compass, adopted in March 2022, dedicates one of its main sections to the role of partnerships.

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, aims to provide background information and policy recommendations concerning the impact and effectiveness of the counterterrorism policies, measures and tools in the EU. Besides a mapping of the evolution of the EU counter-terrorism policy architecture, this study assesses the impact and effectiveness of the EU counterterrorism policy by focusing ...

Strategic Compass: Towards adoption

Rövid áttekintés 26-11-2021

On 15 November 2021, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the Commission (HR/VP) Josep Borrell presented the draft European Union (EU) 'Strategic Compass'. Amidst geopolitical competition, rising threats, accelerated technological development, climate crisis and global instability, the compass aims to facilitate a 'common sense of purpose' in Union security and defence, strengthen action, deepen partnerships, and stimulate innovation. On 30 November ...

As Member States encounter increasingly complex security threats, momentum to push for EU initiatives to deliver on the Union's level of ambition in defence has emerged. A process aimed at bringing clarity, guidance and incentives to completing the common security and defence policy, the Strategic Compass is a first for the European Union. Announced by Commission President Ursula von der Leyen in her 2021 State of the European Union speech, a European Defence Summit is expected to take place in February ...

EU cyber-defence capabilities

Rövid áttekintés 30-09-2021

Cyberspace has become the fifth domain of warfare alongside the traditional sea, land, air and space. As societies digitalise and become more technologically connected, cyber risks and vulnerabilities increase. The European Union (EU) has been highly active in strengthening cyber capabilities and coordination frameworks through a collection of initiatives and proposals, notably since 2017. The European Parliament will debate recent as well as future measures during the October I 2021 plenary session ...

Geopolitical competition between rival nations and a complex security environment are threatening some of the core values of the transatlantic alliance. The institutions responsible for implementing EU and US security and defence policies aim to protect civilians and to promote rules-based conduct in external action. Against this backdrop, both the EU and US are undertaking significant strategic realignments, as the US shifts from counter-insurgency operations to competing with near-peer powers and ...

What if the internet failed?

Rövid áttekintés 27-09-2021

What if the internet failed? Since the 1960s, when work on its development began, internet infrastructure has become almost as important as the electricity and transport infrastructure in modern societies. More and more key services, such as banking, food retail and health care, rely on internet connections. Despite the internet's original resilient decentralised design, the increasing importance of a few central players and the shift towards greater centralisation have made the internet more susceptible ...