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The Holocaust ('Shoah' in Hebrew) – the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and mass murder of Jews, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate along with other persecuted groups, such as Roma and Sinti – took place in Europe. It is therefore not surprising that a trend to address negationism – i.e. unfounded theories questioning certain historical events – by means of criminal law, originated in Europe. With time, the scope of criminalisation has been extended to cover not ...

Just before summer 2021, the EU adopted in record time (see timeline below) two regulations on the EU Digital Covid Certificate. The certificate with a QR code shows if a person has been vaccinated, tested negative or recovered from Covid-19. It is free of charge, available on paper or on a smartphone, and valid in all EU Member States. In total, 43 countries in the world are connected to the EU Digital Covid Certificate system. Its aim is to facilitate safe cross-border movement during the Covid ...

In July 2021, the European Central Bank (ECB), the central bank of the 19 European Union countries that have adopted the euro, completed its first monetary policy strategic review for 18 years. The key change, after 18 months of consultation, was a new interpretation of price stability (the ECB's primary objective) as a symmetric inflation rate of 2 % over the medium term. The aim of this year's review was to adapt monetary policy and central banking to broader macroeconomic trends, such as digitalisation ...

The study examines the potential EU added value of the policy options (encouraging cross-border transactions, enhancing social outcomes and increasing economic contributions) as well as the drawbacks. In addition, the assessment highlights supporting non-legislative measures that could promote specific NPO functions in the EU.

The report provides an in-depth overview of the social, political and economic urgencies in identifying what we call the ‘new surveillance workplace’. The report assesses the range of technologies that are being introduced to monitor, track and, ultimately, watch workers, and looks at the immense changes they imbue in several arenas. How are institutions responding to the widespread uptake of new tracking technologies in workplaces, from the office, to the contact centre, to the factory? What are ...

This document is part of a series of studies, which, in a comparative law perspective, seek to present the principles of equality and non-discrimination in different States. This study examines sources of equality law and judicial interpretation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination in Canada. Contemporary equality law was a response to histories of both public and private discrimination in Canada. Statutory protections for equality and non-discrimination emerged in the post World ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides an overview of transparency and integrity-related elements in the current EU setting, covering both substantive elements (including, in particular, conflict of interest and revolving-doors) as well as the body in charge of ethical control and guidance. Based on a comparison covering France, Ireland and Canada, this study proposes an ...

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing the ratification of international treaties in different legal systems. The subject of this study is the ratification of international treaties under the laws of the United States. It describes relevant constitutional, statutory, and other legal provisions with respect to the making and ratification of treaties, as well as legal provisions relating to the making of ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. The study argues that hate speech and hate crimes poison societies by threatening individual rights, human dignity and equality, reinforcing tensions between social groups, disturbing public peace and public order, and jeopardising peaceful coexistence. The lack of adequate means of prevention and response violates values enshrined in Article ...

This briefing provides an overview of the structure of public expenditures across EU Member States, by delving into their composition according to the classification of the functions of government provided by Eurostat. The overview aims at identifying similarities and differences among EU Members States in 2018 and spotting possible trends of convergence and divergence since 2008. This note is regularly updated.