36

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Szakpolitikai terület
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Search and rescue in the Mediterranean

12-01-2021

International law imposes an obligation to render assistance to persons and ships in distress at sea, which must be provided regardless of the persons' nationality or status or the circumstances in which they are found. These rules have to be applied without prejudice to the obligations deriving from international humanitarian law and international human rights law, including in particular the prohibition of refoulement. Search and rescue (SAR) and disembarkation activities of EU Member States are ...

International law imposes an obligation to render assistance to persons and ships in distress at sea, which must be provided regardless of the persons' nationality or status or the circumstances in which they are found. These rules have to be applied without prejudice to the obligations deriving from international humanitarian law and international human rights law, including in particular the prohibition of refoulement. Search and rescue (SAR) and disembarkation activities of EU Member States are currently not covered by a common EU legal framework, except for those activities carried out in the context of Frontex-led joint operations at sea. In recent years, a significant proportion of migrants and asylum-seekers in distress at sea have been rescued by EU naval operations, EU agencies and non-governmental organisations in the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, over the last couple of years, the Mediterranean Sea has also been the backdrop for the largest number of casualties and missing people. Lack of coordination in search and rescue activities, solitary action by individual countries and criminalisation of non-governmental organisations active in SAR in the Mediterranean lead to migrants being forced to stay for several days and sometimes weeks on boats. EU Member States and EU agencies (Frontex) have also been accused of pushbacks of asylum-seekers and other migrants to the high seas and towards Libya and Turkey. Individual actors dealing with boats of migrants have been a subject of strong criticism and legal action. Their accountability is, however, not always clear, the reason being varied application and interpretation of different bodies of international law. One solution, proposed by academics, could be the harmonisation of the fragmented legal regime for maritime interceptions.

Towards an EU common position on the use of armed drones

15-06-2017

Since the European Parliament (EP) passed a resolution on the use of armed drones in February 2014, it has pointed several times to the need for a common EU position on the matter. It has stressed in particular the importance of ensuring compliance with international human rights and humanitarian law when using armed drones. This publication, which was requested by the EP’s Human Rights Subcommittee, includes a briefing with specific recommendations, drawn up from a legal standpoint, on the elements ...

Since the European Parliament (EP) passed a resolution on the use of armed drones in February 2014, it has pointed several times to the need for a common EU position on the matter. It has stressed in particular the importance of ensuring compliance with international human rights and humanitarian law when using armed drones. This publication, which was requested by the EP’s Human Rights Subcommittee, includes a briefing with specific recommendations, drawn up from a legal standpoint, on the elements that a future Council decision on the use of armed drones should include. This publication also includes a report on the workshop held on 22 March 2017, at which a first draft of the briefing was presented and discussed with Members and stakeholders. The discussion at the workshop confirmed that there was broad support in Parliament for the development of common European principles governing the use of armed drones, not least in view of the emergence of new risks from non-state actors and the EU’s commitment to enhancing security and defence cooperation. While there is currently no agreement between Member States to pursue the matter at EU level, the workshop debate drew attention to the common rules on exports of armed drones and drone technology that already exist. Furthermore, progress has been made recently in agreeing a joint EU position regarding the related matter of lethal autonomous weapons.

Külső szerző

Jessica DORSEY, Giulia BONACQUISTI

EU-Philippines relations: Beyond trade and aid?

17-01-2017

Recent controversial statements by new Philippines President, Rodrigo Duterte are threatening to derail progress towards closer partnership between his country and the EU. Nevertheless, practical cooperation between the two sides, which began with European Community development aid 50 years ago, continues essentially unchanged. The EU and its Member States are still among the leading donors of aid to the Philippines, and EU-Philippines trade and investment is substantial. However, economic ties still ...

Recent controversial statements by new Philippines President, Rodrigo Duterte are threatening to derail progress towards closer partnership between his country and the EU. Nevertheless, practical cooperation between the two sides, which began with European Community development aid 50 years ago, continues essentially unchanged. The EU and its Member States are still among the leading donors of aid to the Philippines, and EU-Philippines trade and investment is substantial. However, economic ties still offer considerable untapped potential. A free trade agreement is currently under negotiation. The two sides have already concluded a partnership and cooperation agreement, now awaiting ratification. Once in force, this will help to strengthen not only economic ties, but also cooperation in the many areas where the EU and the Philippines have shared interests, such as migration, fisheries and maritime labour. Particularly under Duterte's predecessor, the pro-Western Benigno Aquino (2010 2016), EU-Philippines relations were based not only on shared interests but also values. The Philippines is a democracy and, due to its history, one of the most westernised countries in Asia. Shared values have helped to make the country one of the EU's closest allies in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). While Duterte's anti-EU statements have not ended such cooperation, they have created uncertainty over future developments. The EU has adopted a wait-and-see approach; less cordial relations are likely to result.

Human rights in the Philippines

17-01-2017

Since mid-2016, President Rodrigo Duterte's controversial war on drugs has triggered a wave of extrajudicial killings. The current violence reflects longer-term problems, such as high crime rates and a dysfunctional justice system. However, there are still many areas, such as freedom of expression and gender equality, where the Philippines does better than most other Asian countries.

Since mid-2016, President Rodrigo Duterte's controversial war on drugs has triggered a wave of extrajudicial killings. The current violence reflects longer-term problems, such as high crime rates and a dysfunctional justice system. However, there are still many areas, such as freedom of expression and gender equality, where the Philippines does better than most other Asian countries.

Syria: Stalled Peace Process and Blocked Humanitarian Access

24-11-2016

Amid stalled peace talks and a worsening humanitarian situation, the EU is working alongside the UN Special Envoy for Syria to engage key regional and international players and broker a return to the negotiating table. In parallel, an EU emergency humanitarian initiative for Aleppo has been launched to attempt to break the deadlock over humanitarian access and deliver aid to some of the 275 000 people in Aleppo and 13.5 million people across the country who are in desperate need of assistance.

Amid stalled peace talks and a worsening humanitarian situation, the EU is working alongside the UN Special Envoy for Syria to engage key regional and international players and broker a return to the negotiating table. In parallel, an EU emergency humanitarian initiative for Aleppo has been launched to attempt to break the deadlock over humanitarian access and deliver aid to some of the 275 000 people in Aleppo and 13.5 million people across the country who are in desperate need of assistance.

CIA renditions and secret detention programme

02-06-2016

The CIA's extraordinary rendition and secret detention programme has again come under the scrutiny of the European Parliament, which will ask the Commission and the Council during the June plenary about the measures taken to implement Parliament's recommendations on the matter.

The CIA's extraordinary rendition and secret detention programme has again come under the scrutiny of the European Parliament, which will ask the Commission and the Council during the June plenary about the measures taken to implement Parliament's recommendations on the matter.

World Humanitarian Summit 2016

02-05-2016

The first-ever World Humanitarian Summit (WHS), on 23 and 24 May 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey, will bring together a panoply of representatives of world governments, business, and civil society, in order to find a way to improve humanitarian responses to increasingly challenging conditions. The May plenary is due to hear from the Commission and Council on the EU approach to the WHS.

The first-ever World Humanitarian Summit (WHS), on 23 and 24 May 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey, will bring together a panoply of representatives of world governments, business, and civil society, in order to find a way to improve humanitarian responses to increasingly challenging conditions. The May plenary is due to hear from the Commission and Council on the EU approach to the WHS.

Workshop on "The World Humanitarian Summit: Time for Action, Not for Complacency"

22-03-2016

There is broad consensus that change is needed to make the humanitarian system fit for the current challenges, including the global refugee crisis, continuing violations of International Humanitarian Law and the humanitarian funding gap. During the workshop, initiated by the Committee on Development, representatives of the EU, the UN, diplomatic missions and NGOs highlighted the importance to achieve concrete results at the World Humanitarian Summit, taking place on 23/24 May in Istanbul, as well ...

There is broad consensus that change is needed to make the humanitarian system fit for the current challenges, including the global refugee crisis, continuing violations of International Humanitarian Law and the humanitarian funding gap. During the workshop, initiated by the Committee on Development, representatives of the EU, the UN, diplomatic missions and NGOs highlighted the importance to achieve concrete results at the World Humanitarian Summit, taking place on 23/24 May in Istanbul, as well as to ensure a stringent follow up.

Külső szerző

Rahul CHANDRAN (United Nations University Centre for Policy Research)

Arbitrary detention of women and children for immigration-related purposes

26-02-2016

An unprecedented mass movement of asylum-seekers and migrants of all ages started in 2014, and has continued throughout 2015 and into 2016. Fleeing armed conflicts, mass killings, persecution and pervasive sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), these persons seek protection under the 1951 Refugee Convention, its subsequent Protocol and other international instruments. In times of such instability, women and girls are particularly at risk of gender-based violence, including sexual violence. Between ...

An unprecedented mass movement of asylum-seekers and migrants of all ages started in 2014, and has continued throughout 2015 and into 2016. Fleeing armed conflicts, mass killings, persecution and pervasive sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), these persons seek protection under the 1951 Refugee Convention, its subsequent Protocol and other international instruments. In times of such instability, women and girls are particularly at risk of gender-based violence, including sexual violence. Between January and November 2015, Europe witnessed more than 950 000 asylum-seeker and migrant arrivals via the Mediterranean Sea. With record numbers of asylum-seekers worldwide, the head of the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Filippo Grandi, has urged greater efforts to find solutions. The UNHCR has pointed out that in recent years, detention facilities are increasingly being used to host migrants and asylum-seekers, including by countries with good human rights records. If used, detention must be lawful and clearly shown to be necessary, reasonable and proportional. Detention conditions must uphold human dignity and international standards. The journeys that migrants and asylum-seekers take can be dangerous, and they often face high levels of violence, extortion and exploitation, including multiple forms of SGBV – such as human trafficking, psychological manipulation, physical violence or rape. Women and girls are particularly at risk of SGBV during the journey. Situations of vulnerability such as the impact of the journey and experiences of migrants prior to their confinement, which are often physically and psychologically trying, and during which they could have been exposed to diverse forms of abuse and violence need to be addressed. In addition, the effect of confinement in detention centres, particularly if prolonged, needs to be addressed. All these factors require a coordinated and effective protection response.

EU Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD): European Implementation Assessment

05-02-2016

This in-depth analysis, produced by the Ex-Post Impact Assessment Unit of the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), looks into the state of play of the implementation by the European Union of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), after the first round of the review process. The Convention's overarching principles entail mainstreaming of disability rights across all policies and within all institutions. This paper analyses the institutional arrangements ...

This in-depth analysis, produced by the Ex-Post Impact Assessment Unit of the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), looks into the state of play of the implementation by the European Union of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), after the first round of the review process. The Convention's overarching principles entail mainstreaming of disability rights across all policies and within all institutions. This paper analyses the institutional arrangements required to monitor the implementation process, and subsequently puts the recommendations of the CRPD Committee ('Concluding Observations') into a broader context, outlining the progress made so far and the challenges ahead.

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Turning the tide on cancer: the national parliaments' view on Europe's Cancer Plan
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