7

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Serbia’s cooperation with China, the European Union, Russia and the United States of America

21-11-2017

Since 2000, Serbia has undergone a halting yet persistent reintegration into the global economy. However, Serbian foreign policy currently faces a dilemma, as (at least) four separate powers are vying for influence within the country. This study examines Serbia’s foreign policies towards the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Russia, and China, in particular examining the influence of each power with regard to foreign aid, trade, investment and security. Our analysis shows that each partner ...

Since 2000, Serbia has undergone a halting yet persistent reintegration into the global economy. However, Serbian foreign policy currently faces a dilemma, as (at least) four separate powers are vying for influence within the country. This study examines Serbia’s foreign policies towards the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Russia, and China, in particular examining the influence of each power with regard to foreign aid, trade, investment and security. Our analysis shows that each partner of Serbia has their own specific interest and comparative advantage in the country, with the EU focusing primarily on rule of law, aid, and increasing investment, the US on security, Russia on energy and foreign policy support, and China on infrastructure and markets. The scale of cooperation is divergent, however, and the EU accession process has pushed the EU to primus inter pares for the Serbian government. The demarcation across activities, however, means that Serbia may be able to keep its non-aligned status in the short-term. Unfortunately, the country is in an unstable equilibrium, as continued progress towards EU accession means that it will eventually have to sacrifice some independence in foreign affairs. The role of the EU in the coming years will be to emphasise the economic and security benefits that come with EU accession, while acknowledging that Serbia has its own cultural and historical links that need tending to.

Külső szerző

Christopher HARTWELL, President, CASE – Center for Social and Economic Research, Poland; Katarzyna SIDLO, Political Economist, CASE

Development Cooperation Instrument

13-10-2017

The Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) is the main financial instrument in the EU budget for funding aid to developing countries, and as such complements the European Development Fund, which is outside the EU budget. The primary objective of the DCI is to alleviate poverty, but it also contributes to other international priorities of the EU such as the UN's post-2015 Development Agenda; sustainable economic, social and environmental development; and the promotion of democracy, the rule of law ...

The Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) is the main financial instrument in the EU budget for funding aid to developing countries, and as such complements the European Development Fund, which is outside the EU budget. The primary objective of the DCI is to alleviate poverty, but it also contributes to other international priorities of the EU such as the UN's post-2015 Development Agenda; sustainable economic, social and environmental development; and the promotion of democracy, the rule of law, good governance and respect for human rights.

US development policy: New priorities under President Trump

11-07-2017

The new administration of US President Donald Trump has put forward an 'America First' vision in the field of development policy. In his 2018 budget proposal, President Trump requests the US Congress to scale back and refocus US political commitments and financial contributions in the areas of economic and development assistance, humanitarian aid and global health. Limited US foreign assistance funding will be prioritised on the regions, programmes and international organisations that most directly ...

The new administration of US President Donald Trump has put forward an 'America First' vision in the field of development policy. In his 2018 budget proposal, President Trump requests the US Congress to scale back and refocus US political commitments and financial contributions in the areas of economic and development assistance, humanitarian aid and global health. Limited US foreign assistance funding will be prioritised on the regions, programmes and international organisations that most directly advance US national security and economic interests. The US reasoning is that other countries, other donors and the private sector will fill the resulting development policy gaps, through paying 'their fair share'. In line with his scepticism of multilateral agreements and international organisations, President Trump announced on 1 June 2017 that the United States will withdraw from the Paris Climate Accord. While the withdrawal will potentially take years, the USA will immediately cease contributions to the Green Climate Fund, which was not just established to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries, but also to help vulnerable societies adapt to the impacts of climate change.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea): Kim Jong-un Softens his Punch

06-11-2014

Kim Jong-un became the third leader in North Korea’s history, after succeeding his father Kim Jong-il, who died in December 2011. The succession took place smoothly and the new leader follows his predecessor's repressive political line and insists on the development of a nuclear and space programme in an effort to reinforce the country's international position and secure external aid. Pyongyang succeeded in both launching an intercontinental rocket in December 2012 and testing its third nuclear ...

Kim Jong-un became the third leader in North Korea’s history, after succeeding his father Kim Jong-il, who died in December 2011. The succession took place smoothly and the new leader follows his predecessor's repressive political line and insists on the development of a nuclear and space programme in an effort to reinforce the country's international position and secure external aid. Pyongyang succeeded in both launching an intercontinental rocket in December 2012 and testing its third nuclear bomb in February 2013. This caused an international outcry and resulted in more UN sanctions against the DPRK regime. The situation was normalised after China imposed severe limitations to bilateral trade and financial transactions. Since last year North Korea has softened its tone, even launching a ‘charm offensive’ to appease its opponents. Two decades after the great famine that killed more than one million people, agricultural production hardly covers the population's nutritional needs. North Korea depends mainly on aid granted by China and some other donors for its survival. The country is also one of the most repressive in the world and holds a very poor human rights record.

EU financial instruments for external action

05-12-2013

New proposed regulations for European Union (EU) financial instruments for external action are due to apply from 1 January 2014. They are aimed at enabling the EU to reinforce its role in the world and promote its interests and values.

New proposed regulations for European Union (EU) financial instruments for external action are due to apply from 1 January 2014. They are aimed at enabling the EU to reinforce its role in the world and promote its interests and values.

China's role in development in Africa: Challenging the EU approach

08-05-2013

China's two-way "win-win" partnerships with African countries contrast sharply with the traditional asymmetric, one-way donor-recipient relationships between the EU and its African partners.

China's two-way "win-win" partnerships with African countries contrast sharply with the traditional asymmetric, one-way donor-recipient relationships between the EU and its African partners.

Visibility and impact of eu Activity in the un and its Various Programmes, Funds and Agencies

10-02-2006

This study analyses the visibility and impact of the European Community in the UN system in the light of its financial contributions. While the Community functions as a donor in its own right, it is not a member of the United Nations to which only sovereign states can adhere. Therefore, formal representation of the Community in the UN system remains weak. Whether this constitutes an impediment to the EC’s impact on UN policies is discussed with the help of a detailed empirical analysis of EC financial ...

This study analyses the visibility and impact of the European Community in the UN system in the light of its financial contributions. While the Community functions as a donor in its own right, it is not a member of the United Nations to which only sovereign states can adhere. Therefore, formal representation of the Community in the UN system remains weak. Whether this constitutes an impediment to the EC’s impact on UN policies is discussed with the help of a detailed empirical analysis of EC financial contributions to 23 selected UN bodies, and, on the theoretical level, with the help of two different models – the Full Membership Approach and the ‘No Flagwaving’ Approach. The study reaches three main conclusions. First, return on EC investment – in terms of visibility and impact - can be regarded as satisfactory. Second, the EC should not aim at becoming ‘just another donor’ in addition to its Member States. Third, the Community may embrace a potentially strong role under the condition that it defines its approach to EU-UN relations and Development Policy on the basis of its specific nature. EP/ExPol/

Külső szerző

Dr. Rebekka Göhring

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