115

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Szakpolitikai terület
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Hotspots at EU external borders: State of play

25-09-2020

The 'hotspot approach' was presented by the European Commission as part of the European Agenda on Migration in April 2015, when record numbers of refugees, asylum-seekers and other migrants flocked to the EU. The 'hotspots' – first reception facilities – aim to improve coordination of the EU agencies' and national authorities' efforts at the external borders of the EU, in the initial reception, identification, registration and fingerprinting of asylum-seekers and migrants. Even though other Member ...

The 'hotspot approach' was presented by the European Commission as part of the European Agenda on Migration in April 2015, when record numbers of refugees, asylum-seekers and other migrants flocked to the EU. The 'hotspots' – first reception facilities – aim to improve coordination of the EU agencies' and national authorities' efforts at the external borders of the EU, in the initial reception, identification, registration and fingerprinting of asylum-seekers and migrants. Even though other Member States also have the possibility to benefit from the hotspot approach, only Greece and Italy host hotspots. In Greece, the hotspot approach remains the key strategy in addressing migratory pressures. The EU-Turkey Statement of March 2016, closely linked to the implementation of the hotspot approach in Greece, led to a considerable drop in irregular migration flows from Turkey to the EU. However, returns of irregular migrants to Turkey – a cornerstone of the agreement – are low. The deteriorating relationship between Turkey and the EU is putting the agreement under increasing pressure. The hotspot approach was also set up to contribute to the temporary emergency relocation mechanisms that – between September 2015 and September 2017 – helped to transfer asylum-seekers from Greece and Italy to other EU Member States. Even though 96 % of the people eligible had been relocated by the end of March 2018, relocation numbers were far from the targets originally set and the system led to tensions with Czechia, Hungary and Poland, which refused to comply with the mechanism. Since their inception, the majority of the hotspots have suffered from overcrowding, and concerns have been raised by stakeholders with regard to camp facilities and living conditions – in particular for vulnerable migrants and asylum-seekers – and to gaps in access to asylum procedures. These shortcomings cause tensions among the migrants and with local populations and have already led to violent protests. On 8 September 2020, a devastating fire in the Moria camp, on Lesvos, only aggravated the existing problems. The European Parliament has called repeatedly for action to ensure that the hotspot approach does not endanger the fundamental rights of asylum-seekers and migrants. This briefing updates two earlier ones published in March 2016 and in June 2018.

The need for solidarity in EU asylum policy

23-09-2020

In early September 2020, a fire in the over-crowded migrant camp of Moria in Greece pushed thousands of people onto the streets, exacerbating the already dire conditions faced by asylum-seekers and migrants. The incident also shows the need to find a solution to a crisis of solidarity in EU asylum policy that has remained unresolved since the unprecedented influx of migrants into the EU in 2015. The European Commission presented a new Pact on Asylum and Migration on 23 September 2020. In that, it ...

In early September 2020, a fire in the over-crowded migrant camp of Moria in Greece pushed thousands of people onto the streets, exacerbating the already dire conditions faced by asylum-seekers and migrants. The incident also shows the need to find a solution to a crisis of solidarity in EU asylum policy that has remained unresolved since the unprecedented influx of migrants into the EU in 2015. The European Commission presented a new Pact on Asylum and Migration on 23 September 2020. In that, it puts forward a compromise on solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility for asylum-seekers among EU Member States.

Disinformation and Science: A survey of the gullibility of students with regard to false scientific news

04-09-2020

The main aim of this report is to present and discuss the results of a survey concerning perspectives on fake news among undergraduate university students in central Europe and northern Italy. The survey was carried out in spring 2020, during the coronavirus pandemic. An online questionnaire was used. The report is therefore the product of what could be achieved under highly unusual circumstances and should serve as a pointer for further studies. Misinformation is always troubling, especially in ...

The main aim of this report is to present and discuss the results of a survey concerning perspectives on fake news among undergraduate university students in central Europe and northern Italy. The survey was carried out in spring 2020, during the coronavirus pandemic. An online questionnaire was used. The report is therefore the product of what could be achieved under highly unusual circumstances and should serve as a pointer for further studies. Misinformation is always troubling, especially in science. Scientists feel distressed when public understanding diverges from the truth. Intentional disinformation (fake news), however, is not always the cause of misinformation. The report discusses the causes related to social trust and types of media consumption. The sample of the study consisted of several hundred bachelors or masters students from each participating country. Half of the students were recruited from social sciences areas and the other half of the sample were recruited from natural sciences areas. The method of approaching the students was online questioning. One university was chosen from each participating country, and the link to the questionnaire was sent by that university's administration to the students. The response to the questionnaire was naturally anonymous and voluntary.

Külső szerző

DG, EPRS

Research for PECH Committee – Implementation of the current EU fisheries control system by Member States (2014-19)

16-07-2020

This study assesses the implementation of the EU fisheries control system under the current Regulation (EC) No 1244/2009. It focuses on the infringement procedures, sanctions and the application of the point system for serious infringements by Member States from 2014 to 2019. The research shows results based on interviews and survey replies by 17 out of 22 coastal Member States. And it presents case studies for the following seven countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania and ...

This study assesses the implementation of the EU fisheries control system under the current Regulation (EC) No 1244/2009. It focuses on the infringement procedures, sanctions and the application of the point system for serious infringements by Member States from 2014 to 2019. The research shows results based on interviews and survey replies by 17 out of 22 coastal Member States. And it presents case studies for the following seven countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania and Spain.

Külső szerző

Blomeyer & Sanz: Margarita SANZ, Kim STOBBERUP, Roland BLOMEYER

Amending Budget No 4/2020: Mobilisation of the EU Solidarity Fund (Portugal, Spain, Italy and Austria)

11-06-2020

Draft Amending Budget No 4/2020 (DAB 4/2020) accompanies the proposed decision to mobilise the EU Solidarity Fund for an amount of €279 million to provide assistance to Portugal, Spain, Italy and Austria following natural disasters that took place in these Member States in the course of 2019. It proposes to enter the necessary appropriations in the 2020 budget, both in commitments and payments, after deducting the advances already paid out (€6.5 million). The European Parliament is expected to vote ...

Draft Amending Budget No 4/2020 (DAB 4/2020) accompanies the proposed decision to mobilise the EU Solidarity Fund for an amount of €279 million to provide assistance to Portugal, Spain, Italy and Austria following natural disasters that took place in these Member States in the course of 2019. It proposes to enter the necessary appropriations in the 2020 budget, both in commitments and payments, after deducting the advances already paid out (€6.5 million). The European Parliament is expected to vote on the proposal to mobilise the Solidarity Fund and the Council position on DAB 4/2020 during its June plenary session.

Emergency measures on migration: Article 78(3) TFEU

06-03-2020

Article 78(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for the adoption of provisional measures in emergency migratory situations at the EU's external borders. It was first used during the 2015 migration crisis. On the basis of that article, the Council of the EU adopted binding decisions providing for the relocation from Italy and Greece of 160 000 people so as to ensure a fair and balanced distribution of, and sharing of responsibility for, asylum-seekers who were ...

Article 78(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for the adoption of provisional measures in emergency migratory situations at the EU's external borders. It was first used during the 2015 migration crisis. On the basis of that article, the Council of the EU adopted binding decisions providing for the relocation from Italy and Greece of 160 000 people so as to ensure a fair and balanced distribution of, and sharing of responsibility for, asylum-seekers who were already present in the EU. However, despite most Member States' willingness to relocate asylum-seekers, some challenged the Council's decision before the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) or refused to help implement the decision. On 1 March 2020, in the light of events on its Turkish border, Greece announced that it wanted Article 78(3) TFEU to be used to ensure full EU support in the situation of a sudden influx of third-country nationals into the EU.

Amending budget No 3/2019: Mobilisation of the EU Solidarity Fund (Romania, Italy and Austria)

13-09-2019

The European Union Solidarity Fund (EUSF) provides EU Member States struck by natural disasters with financial assistance to contribute to a rapid return to normal conditions. A vote on a budgetary proposal to mobilise the EUSF in order to help Romania, Italy and Austria deal with damage caused by flooding and extreme weather events is scheduled for the September plenary session. The proposed amount to be allocated is €293 551 794.

The European Union Solidarity Fund (EUSF) provides EU Member States struck by natural disasters with financial assistance to contribute to a rapid return to normal conditions. A vote on a budgetary proposal to mobilise the EUSF in order to help Romania, Italy and Austria deal with damage caused by flooding and extreme weather events is scheduled for the September plenary session. The proposed amount to be allocated is €293 551 794.

Detecting and protecting victims of trafficking in hotspots

15-07-2019

This study focuses on the issue of trafficking in human beings in the specific context of hotspots. It analyses the processes in place to facilitate the detection of victims when they arrive by sea on Greek and Italian shores, as well as the protection they are granted.

This study focuses on the issue of trafficking in human beings in the specific context of hotspots. It analyses the processes in place to facilitate the detection of victims when they arrive by sea on Greek and Italian shores, as well as the protection they are granted.

Resettlement of refugees: EU framework

29-03-2019

Resettlement is one tool to help displaced persons in need of protection reach Europe safely and legally, and receive protection for as long as necessary. It is a durable solution which includes selection and transfer of refugees from a country where they seek protection to another country. Apart from providing international protection to refugees, its aim is also to strengthen solidarity and responsibility-sharing between countries. For a resettlement to take place, the United Nations Refugee Agency ...

Resettlement is one tool to help displaced persons in need of protection reach Europe safely and legally, and receive protection for as long as necessary. It is a durable solution which includes selection and transfer of refugees from a country where they seek protection to another country. Apart from providing international protection to refugees, its aim is also to strengthen solidarity and responsibility-sharing between countries. For a resettlement to take place, the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) has to determine an applicant is a refugee according to the 1951 Geneva Convention, and has to identify resettlement as the most appropriate solution. On 13 July 2016, as part of the reform of the Common European Asylum System and the long-term policy on better migration management, the Commission presented a proposal which aims to provide for a permanent framework with standard common procedures for resettlement across the EU, and will complement current national and multilateral resettlement initiatives. Although a partial provisional agreement on the proposal was reached between the Parliament and Council in summer 2018, the Council has been unable to endorse that, nor agree on a mandate for further negotiations.

Sampling points for air quality - Representativeness and comparability of measurement in accordance with Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe

18-03-2019

Air quality monitoring at fixed sites is a major instrument provided for in the Ambient Air Quality Directive to check compliance with limit or target values, which have been set for the protection of human health. This study analyses the criteria for the location of monitoring sites in five Member States to identify ambiguous provisions that might lead to different assessments of air pollution exposure. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Environment ...

Air quality monitoring at fixed sites is a major instrument provided for in the Ambient Air Quality Directive to check compliance with limit or target values, which have been set for the protection of human health. This study analyses the criteria for the location of monitoring sites in five Member States to identify ambiguous provisions that might lead to different assessments of air pollution exposure. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety of the European Parliament.

Külső szerző

Christian NAGL, Wolfgang SPANGL, Iris BUXBAUM

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