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EU policies – Delivering for citizens: Energy supply and security

28-06-2019

Energy policy is a competence shared between the EU and its Member States. Whereas the EU has responsibility under the Treaties to ensure security of supply, Member States are responsible for determining the structure of their energy supply and their choice of energy sources. EU legislation on security of supply focuses on natural gas and electricity markets, and is closely related to other EU objectives: consolidating a single energy market, improving energy efficiency, and promoting renewable energy ...

Energy policy is a competence shared between the EU and its Member States. Whereas the EU has responsibility under the Treaties to ensure security of supply, Member States are responsible for determining the structure of their energy supply and their choice of energy sources. EU legislation on security of supply focuses on natural gas and electricity markets, and is closely related to other EU objectives: consolidating a single energy market, improving energy efficiency, and promoting renewable energy sources to decarbonise the economy and meet the Paris Agreement goals. The 2014-2019 legislature saw numerous initiatives in connection with security of supply. The EU institutions reached agreement on a revised regulation on security of gas supply, a revised regulation on security of electricity supply, a revised decision on intergovernmental agreements in the energy field, a targeted revision of the gas directive to apply its key provisions to pipelines with third countries, and also new targets for energy efficiency and renewables by 2030. Parliament also adopted several own-initiative resolutions in the energy field, including one on the new EU strategy on liquefied natural gas and gas storage, which is key to gas supply security. Meanwhile, EU projects of common interest (PCIs) finance energy infrastructure that improves interconnection and supports security of supply. There is growing expectation among EU citizens that the EU will step up its involvement in energy supply and security. Whereas this view was shared by just over half of EU citizens in 2016 (52 %), it is now expressed by roughly two thirds (65 %). The EU will retain a key role in monitoring security of supply throughout the energy transition from the old system of centralised generation dominated by fossil fuels in national markets, towards a new system characterised by a high share of renewables, more localised production and cross-border markets. However, the EU would need to use a special legislative procedure if it wanted to intervene directly in determining the energy supply of its Member States. This procedure requires decision-making by unanimity in Council and only a consultative role for the Parliament. This is an update of an earlier briefing issued in advance of the 2019 European elections.

Internal market for electricity

14-03-2019

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a regulation on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package on the energy union. The proposed regulation is aimed at making the electricity market fit for more flexibility, decarbonisation and innovation, by providing for undistorted market signals. It sets out rules for electricity trading within different time frames, and clarifies the responsibilities of market actors. It defines ...

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a regulation on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package on the energy union. The proposed regulation is aimed at making the electricity market fit for more flexibility, decarbonisation and innovation, by providing for undistorted market signals. It sets out rules for electricity trading within different time frames, and clarifies the responsibilities of market actors. It defines principles for assessing capacity needs at regional and European level and proposes design principles for market-based capacity mechanisms with cross-border participation. It introduces regional operational centres for handling-system operation and a European entity for distribution system operators. The Council adopted its general approach in December 2017. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) adopted its report in February 2018. A provisional trilogue agreement was reached on 19 December 2018. Parliament is expected to vote on the agreement during the March II 2019 plenary session. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Russia [What Think Tanks are thinking]

21-09-2018

In September, Russia held its largest military exercise since 1981, the height of the Cold War, deploying 300 000 troops and also inviting Chinese forces to participate. The event highlighted Russia’s growing assertiveness in security and foreign policy, following its annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Syria. The policies of President Vladimir Putin, who was re-elected earlier this year, pose a dilemma for the European Union and the United States, with some observers accusing him of ...

In September, Russia held its largest military exercise since 1981, the height of the Cold War, deploying 300 000 troops and also inviting Chinese forces to participate. The event highlighted Russia’s growing assertiveness in security and foreign policy, following its annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Syria. The policies of President Vladimir Putin, who was re-elected earlier this year, pose a dilemma for the European Union and the United States, with some observers accusing him of trying to sabotage Western liberal democracy and others saying that he wants to regain the position of global player that the Soviet Union once occupied. This note offers links to commentaries and studies by major international think tanks, which discuss Russia's policies and how to respond to them. More reports on the topic can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are Thinking', published in March 2018. Some more papers on US-Russian relations are available in another edition from the series published in August 2018.

The European Council in 2017: Overview of decisions and discussions

29-06-2018

The year 2017 was good for the EU, politically and economically. For the first time in almost a decade, the EU was not beset by crises, although Brexit posed a difficult challenge. The European Council met the Brexit challenge by approving guidelines for the negotiations in April, and agreeing to move to a new stage in December, while convening in a new format: Article 50 (TEU) meetings of the EU-27. The European Council launched another new formal in 2017: Leaders’ Meetings, held under the auspices ...

The year 2017 was good for the EU, politically and economically. For the first time in almost a decade, the EU was not beset by crises, although Brexit posed a difficult challenge. The European Council met the Brexit challenge by approving guidelines for the negotiations in April, and agreeing to move to a new stage in December, while convening in a new format: Article 50 (TEU) meetings of the EU-27. The European Council launched another new formal in 2017: Leaders’ Meetings, held under the auspices of the Leader’ Agenda, to discuss challenging issues such as migration and EMU reform. By the end of the year, the European Council could look back at an eventful but largely successful twelve months.

Brexit and Energy Policy - Workshop Proceedings

15-06-2018

This document summarises the presentations and discussions of the workshop on “Brexit and Energy Policy”, which was held on 16 May 2018. The impact of Brexit on the EU27 energy systems and the future EU electricity and gas partnership with the UK were assessed. The effects of Brexit on Ireland and the potential impact of the UK's withdrawal from Euratom were also discussed. This document was prepared at the request of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE).

This document summarises the presentations and discussions of the workshop on “Brexit and Energy Policy”, which was held on 16 May 2018. The impact of Brexit on the EU27 energy systems and the future EU electricity and gas partnership with the UK were assessed. The effects of Brexit on Ireland and the potential impact of the UK's withdrawal from Euratom were also discussed. This document was prepared at the request of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE).

Külső szerző

Gustav FREDRIKSSON, Bruegel Alexander ROTH, Bruegel Simone TAGLIAPIETRA, Bruegel Georg ZACHMANN, Bruegel

What is Europe doing for its citizens? European Parliament Open Days 2018

26-04-2018

This compendium brings together a set of notes produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service on the occasion of the European Parliament's 2018 Open Days. The European Union is constantly working to improve the lives of European citizens. More than 500 million people in the EU Member States see their work, study, leisure and family lives benefitting in many ways, large or small, from the policies and legislation of the European Union. The European Parliament makes an essential, and often ...

This compendium brings together a set of notes produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service on the occasion of the European Parliament's 2018 Open Days. The European Union is constantly working to improve the lives of European citizens. More than 500 million people in the EU Member States see their work, study, leisure and family lives benefitting in many ways, large or small, from the policies and legislation of the European Union. The European Parliament makes an essential, and often decisive, contribution to shaping those laws and policies. Parliament's 751 Members represent each and every European citizen, ensuring that decisions which affect them are taken not by unknown officials but by the democratically elected representatives of the citizens of all Member States. The notes presented in this brochure give just a sample of the many areas in which EU action has helped to improve – and continues to benefit – the lives of men and women, young and old across the European Union. The brochure is published to mark this year's European Parliament Open Days, when, along with the other EU institutions, Parliament opens its doors to citizens to let them see what it does and how it works.

Western Balkans: Enlargement strategy 2018

13-03-2018

With a resolute tone and a sense of urgency, the European Commission's new enlargement strategy for the Western Balkans sets a clear direction for the region's six countries: it offers them a credible enlargement perspective and pledges enhanced EU engagement. It indicates 2025 as a possible enlargement date. However, seizing this opportunity remains a challenge, as the aspirants must each deliver on difficult, key reforms, and solve all outstanding bilateral disputes.

With a resolute tone and a sense of urgency, the European Commission's new enlargement strategy for the Western Balkans sets a clear direction for the region's six countries: it offers them a credible enlargement perspective and pledges enhanced EU engagement. It indicates 2025 as a possible enlargement date. However, seizing this opportunity remains a challenge, as the aspirants must each deliver on difficult, key reforms, and solve all outstanding bilateral disputes.

The EU's Russia policy: Five guiding principles

08-02-2018

While EU-Russia relations had long been difficult, in 2014 they took an abrupt turn for the worse, after Russia illegally annexed Crimea and fomented separatist insurgencies in eastern Ukraine. To date, little progress has been made towards ending the Ukraine conflict. In addition, new sources of tension have emerged, for example: Russia's military backing for the Assad regime in Syria, and alleged Russian interference in EU politics. In the short term, an easing of tensions seems unlikely. In March ...

While EU-Russia relations had long been difficult, in 2014 they took an abrupt turn for the worse, after Russia illegally annexed Crimea and fomented separatist insurgencies in eastern Ukraine. To date, little progress has been made towards ending the Ukraine conflict. In addition, new sources of tension have emerged, for example: Russia's military backing for the Assad regime in Syria, and alleged Russian interference in EU politics. In the short term, an easing of tensions seems unlikely. In March 2016, EU foreign ministers and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini, agreed on five guiding principles for EU-Russia relations: full implementation of the Minsk agreements; closer ties with Russia's former Soviet neighbours; strengthening EU resilience to Russian threats; selective engagement with Russia on certain issues such as counter-terrorism; and support for people-to-people contacts. Implementing each of these principles faces major difficulties. The EU is unlikely to lift sanctions against Russia while implementation of the Minsk agreements remains stalled; the EU's Eastern Neighbourhood remains a zone of confrontation; EU security is threatened by dependence on Russian energy imports and the destabilising effects of aggressive propaganda; EU-Russia cooperation on international issues has become a victim of tensions between the two sides; repressive Russian legislation obstructs EU support for Russian civil society; diplomatic tensions are mirrored by mutual suspicion between ordinary EU citizens and Russians. This is an updated edition of a briefing from October 2016.

Sanctions over Ukraine: Impact on Russia

17-01-2018

In early 2014, Russia violated international law by annexing Crimea and allegedly fomenting separatist uprisings in the eastern Ukrainian region of Donbas. The European Union, the United States and several other Western countries responded with diplomatic measures in March 2014, followed by asset freezes and visa bans targeted at individuals and entities. In July 2014, sanctions targeting the Russian energy, defence and financial sectors were adopted. These sanctions have not swayed Russian public ...

In early 2014, Russia violated international law by annexing Crimea and allegedly fomenting separatist uprisings in the eastern Ukrainian region of Donbas. The European Union, the United States and several other Western countries responded with diplomatic measures in March 2014, followed by asset freezes and visa bans targeted at individuals and entities. In July 2014, sanctions targeting the Russian energy, defence and financial sectors were adopted. These sanctions have not swayed Russian public opinion, which continues to staunchly back the Kremlin's actions in Ukraine. Despite Western efforts to isolate Russia, the country is playing an increasingly prominent role on the global stage. On the other hand, sectoral sanctions have proved painful, aggravating an economic downturn triggered by falling oil prices, from which the country has only just begun to recover. Sanctions have affected the Russian economy in various ways. The main short-term impact comes from restrictions on Western lending and investment in Russia. Oil and gas production remains unaffected for the time being, but in the long term energy exports are likely to suffer. Meanwhile, Russian counter-sanctions are benefiting the country's agricultural sector, but consumers are losing out in terms of choice and price. Quantitative estimates of the impact are difficult, but most observers agree that sanctions are costing Russia billions of euros a year and holding back a return to higher rates of economic growth. This is an updated edition of a briefing from March 2016, PE 579.084.

European Council Conclusions: A Rolling Check-List of Commitments to Date

18-12-2017

The European Council's role – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' - has developed rapidly over the past eight years. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think-tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery of the various commitments made in the conclusions ...

The European Council's role – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' - has developed rapidly over the past eight years. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think-tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery of the various commitments made in the conclusions of its meetings. This overview, presented in the form of a regularly updated Rolling Check-List of Commitments to Date, is designed to review the degree of progress in realising the goals which the European Council has set itself since January 2010 and to assist the Parliament in exercising its important oversight role in this field.

Következő események

16-10-2019
State of the Union: The view from regions and cities
Egyéb esemény -
EPRS
17-10-2019
What Europe is Thinking: The latest Pew survey of opinion in 14 EU Member States
Egyéb esemény -
EPRS

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