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Cost of non-Europe in robotics and artificial intelligence

12-06-2019

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research ...

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research and development activity by producers and increase the speed of uptake of these two new emerging technologies by consumers, resulting in a possible positive impact in terms of GDP. Research suggests that, by 2030, EU GDP could be 0.04 % higher than it would otherwise be under the current regulatory framework.

Külső szerző

This study has been written by Bob Martens and Jorren Garrez of DLA Piper UK LLP and Cambridge Econometrics at the request of the European Added Value Unit within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the European Parliament.

Artificial intelligence in transport: Current and future developments, opportunities and challenges

27-03-2019

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities ...

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities come real challenges, including unintended consequences and misuse such as cyber-attacks and biased decisions about transport. There are also ramifications for employment, and ethical questions regarding liability for the decisions taken by artificial intelligence in the place of humans. The EU is taking steps to adapt its regulatory framework to these developments, so that it supports innovation while at the same time ensuring respect for fundamental values and rights. The measures already taken include general strategies on artificial intelligence and rules that support the technologies enabling the application of artificial intelligence in transport. In addition, the EU provides financial support, in particular for research.

Robots in healthcare: a solution or a problem?

15-03-2019

This report summarises the presentations and discussions of a workshop on the use of robots and AI in healthcare, held at the European Parliament in Brussels on Tuesday 19 February 2019. The aim of the workshop was to provide background information and advice for Members of the ENVI Committee on the status and prospects of applying robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) based technologies in healthcare. The first part of the workshop focused on the practical application of AI and robots in healthcare ...

This report summarises the presentations and discussions of a workshop on the use of robots and AI in healthcare, held at the European Parliament in Brussels on Tuesday 19 February 2019. The aim of the workshop was to provide background information and advice for Members of the ENVI Committee on the status and prospects of applying robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) based technologies in healthcare. The first part of the workshop focused on the practical application of AI and robots in healthcare, while the second part examined the ethical implications and responsibilities of AI and robotic based technologies in healthcare.

Külső szerző

Zrinjka DOLIC, Milieu Consulting Rosa CASTRO, Milieu Consulting Andrei MOARCAS, Milieu Consulting

Artificial Intelligence ante portas: Legal & ethical reflections

14-03-2019

This briefing provides accessible introductions to some of the major legal, regulatory and ethical debates surrounding the deployment and use of AI systems. It focuses on the challenges that the sui generis features of AI may pose on the current legal framework and argues that as AI systems become more autonomous, a doctrinal paradigm swift may be needed. Given the foreseeable pervasiveness of AI, the briefing poses the question about how this new technology should be defined and classified in legal ...

This briefing provides accessible introductions to some of the major legal, regulatory and ethical debates surrounding the deployment and use of AI systems. It focuses on the challenges that the sui generis features of AI may pose on the current legal framework and argues that as AI systems become more autonomous, a doctrinal paradigm swift may be needed. Given the foreseeable pervasiveness of AI, the briefing poses the question about how this new technology should be defined and classified in legal and ethical terms. By providing an analysis of the key legal initiatives in this field in Europe, the briefing aims to equip the reader with the understanding they need to engage in clear-headed reflection about AI’s legal and socio-ethical challenges, and meaningful debates about how the current EU acquis may need to be adjusted to the new technological realities.

State of the art and future of artificial in-telligence

15-01-2019

Artificial Intelligence is a booming field of scientific discovery and practical deployments. Once a mostly academic area of study, twenty-first century AI enables a spectrum of mainstream technologies that are having a substantial impact on everyday lives. In many cases, already now, AI accompanies the users in our everyday errands and professional lives. In the future it will not only reshape business, public administration, health care, finances or education, but may also contribute to solving ...

Artificial Intelligence is a booming field of scientific discovery and practical deployments. Once a mostly academic area of study, twenty-first century AI enables a spectrum of mainstream technologies that are having a substantial impact on everyday lives. In many cases, already now, AI accompanies the users in our everyday errands and professional lives. In the future it will not only reshape business, public administration, health care, finances or education, but may also contribute to solving grand civilizational challenges such as climate change, hunger or inequality. The phase of AI massively transforming society, economy, and politics has already begun.

Külső szerző

Dr Aleksandra Przegalinska

EYE event - I am Doctor Robot. What can I do for you?

16-05-2018

Robotics is moving from the realm of science fiction to palpable reality and, although they are unlikely to replace health professionals any time soon, robots already have many uses in medicine and healthcare. The use and development of robots come with new challenges, some ethical. The European Parliament has taken a stance and asked the European Commission to come up with rules.

Robotics is moving from the realm of science fiction to palpable reality and, although they are unlikely to replace health professionals any time soon, robots already have many uses in medicine and healthcare. The use and development of robots come with new challenges, some ethical. The European Parliament has taken a stance and asked the European Commission to come up with rules.

Civil law rules on robotics

07-02-2017

The Legal Affairs (JURI) Committee has tabled a report with recommendations to the Commission on the civil-law and ethical aspects of robotics. The report calls for EU legislation introducing a register of robots, setting up an EU Agency for Robotics and laying down principles of civil liability for damages caused by robots. Such legislation should be complemented by ethical codes of conduct.

The Legal Affairs (JURI) Committee has tabled a report with recommendations to the Commission on the civil-law and ethical aspects of robotics. The report calls for EU legislation introducing a register of robots, setting up an EU Agency for Robotics and laying down principles of civil liability for damages caused by robots. Such legislation should be complemented by ethical codes of conduct.

Ethical Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems

28-06-2016

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are intelligent robotics systems, linked with the Internet of Things, or technical systems of networked computers, robots and artificial intelligence that interact with the physical world.The project 'Ethical aspects of CPS' aims to provide insights into the potential ethical concerns and related unintended impacts of the possible evolution of CPS technology by 2050. The overarching purpose is to support the European Parliament, the parliamentary bodies, and the individual ...

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are intelligent robotics systems, linked with the Internet of Things, or technical systems of networked computers, robots and artificial intelligence that interact with the physical world.The project 'Ethical aspects of CPS' aims to provide insights into the potential ethical concerns and related unintended impacts of the possible evolution of CPS technology by 2050. The overarching purpose is to support the European Parliament, the parliamentary bodies, and the individual Members in their anticipation of possible future concerns regarding developments in CPS, robotics and artificial intelligence.The Scientific Foresight study was conducted in three phases:1. A 'technical horizon scan', in the form of briefing papers describing the technical trends and their possible societal, ethical, economic, environmental, political/legal and demographic impacts, and this in seven application domains. 2. The 'soft impact and scenario phase', which analysed soft impacts of CPS, on the basis of the technical horizon scan, for pointing out possible future public concerns via an envisioning exercise and using exploratory scenarios.3. The 'legal backcasting' phase, which resulted in a briefing for the European Parliament identifying the legal instruments that may need to be modified or reviewed, including — where appropriate — areas identified for anticipatory parliamentary work, in accordance with the conclusions reached within the project.The outcome of the study is a policy briefing for MEPs describing legal instruments to anticipate impacts of future developments in the area of cyber-physical systems, such as intelligent robotics systems, linked with the Internet of Things. It is important to note that not all impacts of CPS are easily translated into legislation, as it is often contested whether they are in effect harmful, who is to be held accountable, and to what extent these impacts constitute a public rather than a private concern.

Research for TRAN Committee – Self-Piloted Cars: The Future of Road Transport?

15-03-2016

The study provides an analysis of the development of automated vehicles inside and outside the EU, including both the technologies which are already on the market and those under testing and research. The EU is giving increasing attention to automated and connected vehicles as they could have huge impacts on road safety, travel behaviour and urban development. The study reports on state of the art key research projects and large scale testing in this area and discusses future pathways and potential ...

The study provides an analysis of the development of automated vehicles inside and outside the EU, including both the technologies which are already on the market and those under testing and research. The EU is giving increasing attention to automated and connected vehicles as they could have huge impacts on road safety, travel behaviour and urban development. The study reports on state of the art key research projects and large scale testing in this area and discusses future pathways and potential impacts of increasing vehicle automation. It concludes with recommendations on aspects that should be considered when shaping policies to sustain the research and development, and bringing to market, of highly automated and connected vehicles.

Külső szerző

Roberta Frisoni, Andrea Dall’Oglio, Craig Nelson, James Long, Christoph Vollath, Davide Ranghetti and Sarah McMinimy

Civil drones in the European Union

28-10-2015

Drones are aircraft which are operated with no pilot on board. Initially developed for military and defence purposes, they are increasingly used for various civil purposes, including photography, rescue operations, infrastructure monitoring, farming and aerial mapping. Being aircraft, drones have to comply with aviation safety rules. International civil aviation rules adopted since 1944 at United Nations level prohibit unmanned aircraft from flying over another state’s territory without its permission ...

Drones are aircraft which are operated with no pilot on board. Initially developed for military and defence purposes, they are increasingly used for various civil purposes, including photography, rescue operations, infrastructure monitoring, farming and aerial mapping. Being aircraft, drones have to comply with aviation safety rules. International civil aviation rules adopted since 1944 at United Nations level prohibit unmanned aircraft from flying over another state’s territory without its permission. In the EU, the current regulatory system for drones is based on fragmented rules, with many Member States having already regulated or planning to regulate some aspects of civil drones with an operating mass of 150 kg or less. The responsibility for civil drones over 150 kg is left to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). However, the extent, content and level of detail of national regulations differs, and conditions for mutual recognition of operational authorisations between EU Member States have not been reached. In 2014, the Commission adopted a Communication outlining a strategy for opening the aviation market gradually to civil drones. In the strategy it calls for adoption of EU-wide rules on civil drones, which should ensure that drones are safe, secure and respect fundamental rights. The Council is in favour of a harmonised European approach, and considers EASA best placed to develop technical and safety standards, licences and certificates. The EP's Committee on Transport and Tourism presents its views in a report on civil drones to be voted by the EP plenary in October 2015. In its report, the Committee calls for proportionate and risk-based rules, while also putting emphasis on safety, privacy, security and data protection. The next step is the revision of EASA's Basic Regulation to include in it a specific article on drones, and define their essential requirements.

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