102

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Trans-European energy infrastructure guidelines: Updating the current framework

26-04-2021

This briefing provides an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above-mentioned proposal, adopted on 15 December 2020 and referred to Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The proposal seeks to amend Regulation (EU) No 347/2013 on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure (TEN E) with a view to ensure that the existing framework is consistent with, and contributes to, the new 2030 EU ...

This briefing provides an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above-mentioned proposal, adopted on 15 December 2020 and referred to Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The proposal seeks to amend Regulation (EU) No 347/2013 on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure (TEN E) with a view to ensure that the existing framework is consistent with, and contributes to, the new 2030 EU climate target, set out in COM(2020) 562, commonly known as the 2030 EU climate target plan, with the ultimate objective of achieving an economy with net-zero greenhouse gas emissions (i.e. climate neutrality) by 2050, and in line with the Commission communication on the European Green Deal, COM(2019) 640.

Coronavirus: Vaccination debates [What Think Tanks are thinking]

05-03-2021

As the second wave of the coronavirus passes, numbers of new infections and the death rate are currently both in decline globally. At the same time, countries across the world have begun vaccination programmes. In parallel, fears that the impact of the disease will continue, as some new, highly contagious mutations of the virus have spread, have lead governments to adopt additional preventive border restrictions and lockdowns. Among many debates on the subject, two stand out – the slower vaccination ...

As the second wave of the coronavirus passes, numbers of new infections and the death rate are currently both in decline globally. At the same time, countries across the world have begun vaccination programmes. In parallel, fears that the impact of the disease will continue, as some new, highly contagious mutations of the virus have spread, have lead governments to adopt additional preventive border restrictions and lockdowns. Among many debates on the subject, two stand out – the slower vaccination rate in the EU compared to the UK and US, and the imbalance between rich and poor countries in the availability of vaccines, with a third debate, on vaccination passports, emerging rapidly. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from international think tanks on the pandemic and related issues. A previous item from this series on the coronavirus was published in February 2021.

Post Covid-19 value chains: options for reshoring production back to Europe in a globalised economy

19-02-2021

Against the background of supply shortages with respect to medical products during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the shift in the international order towards geopolitical rivalry between the US and China, reshoring of production has become a topical issue in the recent EU policy debate. The study discusses economic and political justifications for reshoring with respect to security of supply concerns and the debate on the EU’s strategic autonomy. With reshoring pre-COVID-19 having remained an empirical ...

Against the background of supply shortages with respect to medical products during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the shift in the international order towards geopolitical rivalry between the US and China, reshoring of production has become a topical issue in the recent EU policy debate. The study discusses economic and political justifications for reshoring with respect to security of supply concerns and the debate on the EU’s strategic autonomy. With reshoring pre-COVID-19 having remained an empirical phenomenon of limited significance, potential for reshoring at the sector and GVC level are assessed in light of recent economic changes, the digital transformation and the changing geopolitical environment. Though reinforced in the recent past, the success of reshoring policies of the US, the UK and Japan is found to have been modest. While a more proactive policy approach to mitigate security of supply concerns and to promote strategic autonomy in the EU is important, reshoring should be primarily focused on specific critical sectors and products with pronounced supply bottlenecks.

Külső szerző

Werner Raza, Jan Grumiller, Hannes Grohs, Jürgen Essletzbichler, Nico Pintar

Critical raw materials for the EU: Enablers of the green and digital recovery

18-12-2020

The pandemic has highlighted the risk involved, including for the EU, in relying heavily on external suppliers. The EU's 30 critical raw materials (CRMs) combine two characteristics: they are strategically important for its industry and economy, and there are high risks associated with securing their supply. The notion of strategic autonomy, which has been gaining track recently, calls for a more autonomous and independent EU policy, also in the area of CRMs. Importantly, the core of the EU's response ...

The pandemic has highlighted the risk involved, including for the EU, in relying heavily on external suppliers. The EU's 30 critical raw materials (CRMs) combine two characteristics: they are strategically important for its industry and economy, and there are high risks associated with securing their supply. The notion of strategic autonomy, which has been gaining track recently, calls for a more autonomous and independent EU policy, also in the area of CRMs. Importantly, the core of the EU's response to the pandemic has been to use it to transform its economy and society. The twin transition to a green and digital future relies particularly on the safe and diverse supply of CRMs. In its journey to a low-carbon economy, the EU should however make sure it does not replace its reliance on fossil fuels with a reliance on CRMs. While secure access to CRMs has been on the EU agenda for many years, the European Commission has eagerly stepped up its policy in this area since the beginning of its current term, and in September 2020 delivered a new package of measures. These included a new action plan for CRMs that supports initiatives in four main areas: i) developing resilient value chains for EU industrial ecosystems; ii) supporting sustainable and environmentally friendly domestic mining and processing of raw materials in the EU extraction (with priority given to former coal-mining regions); iii) weakening dependency on primary CRMs through better circular use of resources, environmentally friendly products and innovation; and iv) diversifying supply with sustainable and responsible sourcing from third countries. The EU has also launched the European Raw Materials Alliance, joining together the industry, researchers, Member States and civil society to close the main gaps in the value chains. The European Parliament has been a long-standing supporter of boosting all the elements of CRMs value chains to ensure the security of supply and weaken unwanted dependencies.

A pharmaceutical strategy for Europe: First steps

24-06-2020

On 1 June 2020, the European Commission published a roadmap for a pharmaceutical strategy for Europe. The strategy will have the overall goal of ensuring Europe's supply of safe and affordable medicines and supporting the European pharmaceutical industry's innovation efforts. Two consultations (on the roadmap and the strategy, respectively), are currently under way. Adoption of the strategy is envisaged for the fourth quarter of 2020.

On 1 June 2020, the European Commission published a roadmap for a pharmaceutical strategy for Europe. The strategy will have the overall goal of ensuring Europe's supply of safe and affordable medicines and supporting the European pharmaceutical industry's innovation efforts. Two consultations (on the roadmap and the strategy, respectively), are currently under way. Adoption of the strategy is envisaged for the fourth quarter of 2020.

Cybersecurity of critical energy infrastructure

25-10-2019

The European Union (EU) has a high level of energy security, enabled by oil and gas reserve stocks, and one of the most reliable electricity grids in the world. However, a number of established and emerging trends pose new challenges to the security of energy supply, notably in the electricity sector. The production, distribution and use of energy is becoming increasingly digitalised and automated, a trend which will further increase with the transformation towards a distributed carbon-neutral energy ...

The European Union (EU) has a high level of energy security, enabled by oil and gas reserve stocks, and one of the most reliable electricity grids in the world. However, a number of established and emerging trends pose new challenges to the security of energy supply, notably in the electricity sector. The production, distribution and use of energy is becoming increasingly digitalised and automated, a trend which will further increase with the transformation towards a distributed carbon-neutral energy system and the growth of the 'internet of things', which means that more and more networked devices will be connected to the electricity grid. This provides increased opportunities for malicious actors to carry out attacks on the energy system, notably cyber-attacks, possibly in combination with physical damage and social engineering. It also increases the risk of inadvertent disruption. Hackers are becoming increasingly capable, and are already probing and exploiting vulnerabilities in the energy system, as a number of incidents outside the EU have demonstrated.

Common rules for the internal electricity market

12-07-2019

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a recast directive on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package entitled 'Clean Energy for all Europeans'. The proposed directive would oblige Member States to ensure a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices. It would strengthen existing customer rights, introduce new ones and provide a framework ...

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a recast directive on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package entitled 'Clean Energy for all Europeans'. The proposed directive would oblige Member States to ensure a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices. It would strengthen existing customer rights, introduce new ones and provide a framework for energy communities. Member States would have to monitor and address energy poverty. The proposal clarifies the tasks of distribution system operators and emphasises the obligation of neighbouring national regulators to cooperate on issues of cross-border relevance. The Council adopted its general approach in December 2017. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) adopted its report in February 2018. A provisional trilogue agreement was reached in December 2018. The European Parliament adopted the text in the March II 2019 plenary session and the Council on 22 May 2019. The Directive entered into force on 4 July 2019 and must be transposed into national legislation by 31 December 2020. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Internal market for electricity

12-07-2019

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a regulation on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package on the energy union. The proposed regulation is aimed at making the electricity market fit for more flexibility, decarbonisation and innovation, by providing for undistorted market signals. It sets out rules for electricity trading within different time frames, and clarifies the responsibilities of market actors. It defines ...

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a regulation on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package on the energy union. The proposed regulation is aimed at making the electricity market fit for more flexibility, decarbonisation and innovation, by providing for undistorted market signals. It sets out rules for electricity trading within different time frames, and clarifies the responsibilities of market actors. It defines principles for assessing capacity needs at regional and European level and proposes design principles for market-based capacity mechanisms with cross-border participation. It introduces regional operational centres for handling-system operation and a European entity for distribution system operators. The Council adopted its general approach in December 2017. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) adopted its report in February 2018. A provisional trilogue agreement was reached on 19 December 2018. The European Parliament adopted the text in the March II 2019 plenary session and the Council on 22 May 2019. The Regulation entered into force on 4 July 2019. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Risk-preparedness in the electricity sector

12-07-2019

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on risk-preparedness in the electricity sector. This proposal addresses shortcomings in the existing legislation, notably a lack of regional coordination, and differing national rules and procedures. It would replace the existing legislation, and establish common rules on crisis prevention and crisis management in the electricity sector. Regional interdependencies would be taken into account in the preparation of national ...

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on risk-preparedness in the electricity sector. This proposal addresses shortcomings in the existing legislation, notably a lack of regional coordination, and differing national rules and procedures. It would replace the existing legislation, and establish common rules on crisis prevention and crisis management in the electricity sector. Regional interdependencies would be taken into account in the preparation of national riskpreparedness plans and in managing crisis situations. Transparency would be enhanced by requiring an ex-post evaluation of crisis situations. In the European Parliament, the proposal was referred to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), which adopted its report in February 2018. A trilogue agreement was reached in November 2018. The European Parliament adopted the text in the March II 2019 plenary session and the Council on 22 May 2019. The Regulation was published in the Official Journal on 14 June 2019 and entered into force on 4 July 2019. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Common rules for gas pipelines entering the EU internal market

27-05-2019

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal to fully apply key provisions of the 2009 Gas Directive to gas pipelines between the European Union (EU) and third countries. Member States would need to cooperate with third countries to ensure full compliance with EU rules. The revised directive was seen by many observers as a part of the broader EU response to the Gazprom-led Nord Stream 2 project, which the European Commission publicly opposes. The Parliament adopted its ...

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal to fully apply key provisions of the 2009 Gas Directive to gas pipelines between the European Union (EU) and third countries. Member States would need to cooperate with third countries to ensure full compliance with EU rules. The revised directive was seen by many observers as a part of the broader EU response to the Gazprom-led Nord Stream 2 project, which the European Commission publicly opposes. The Parliament adopted its position on the gas directive in plenary on April 2018, whereas the Council adopted its general approach on 8 February 2019. This was swiftly followed by a single trilogue meeting on 12 February 2019 at which the EU institutions reached a provisional agreement. The agreed text was later formally adopted by Parliament and Council, and entered into force on 23 May 2019. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

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