171

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Review of dual-use export controls

15-01-2021

Certain goods and technologies have legitimate civilian applications but can also be used for military purposes; so-called 'dual-use' goods are subject to the European Union's export control regime. The regime has just been revised, mainly to take account of significant technological developments, increase transparency and create a more level playing field among EU Member States. The proposed regulation will recast the regulation in force since 2009. Among other elements, the proposal explicitly ...

Certain goods and technologies have legitimate civilian applications but can also be used for military purposes; so-called 'dual-use' goods are subject to the European Union's export control regime. The regime has just been revised, mainly to take account of significant technological developments, increase transparency and create a more level playing field among EU Member States. The proposed regulation will recast the regulation in force since 2009. Among other elements, the proposal explicitly defines cyber-surveillance technology as dual-use technology and introduces human rights violations as an explicit justification for export control. It also includes provisions to control emerging technologies. The proposed regulation introduces greater transparency into dual-use export control by increasing the level of detail Member States will have to provide on exports, licences, licence denials and prohibitions. On 17 January 2018, based on the INTA committee's report on the legislative proposal, the European Parliament adopted its position for trilogue negotiations. For its part, the Council adopted its negotiating mandate on 5 June 2019, and on the basis of this mandate, the Council Presidency began negotiations with the European Parliament's delegation on 21 October 2019. Trilogue negotiations ended on 9 November 2020, with agreement on a final compromise text. Endorsed by the INTA committee on 30 November, the Parliament is expected to vote in plenary on the text in early 2021. Sixth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Research for CULT Committee - The use of Artificial Intelligence in the Audiovisual Sector - Concomitant expertise for INI report

15-05-2020

This briefing paper takes a look at the use of AI technologies in the wider audiovisual sector. A survey with ten questions concerning the most important aspects was circulated to 85 contacts at 73 organisations. A total of 22 responses were received. The main findings are as follows: 1. Almost all respondents report broad use of AI technologies, especially for automated indexing, improved content accessibility as well as localisation. AI is used for processing audio or video, language or text data ...

This briefing paper takes a look at the use of AI technologies in the wider audiovisual sector. A survey with ten questions concerning the most important aspects was circulated to 85 contacts at 73 organisations. A total of 22 responses were received. The main findings are as follows: 1. Almost all respondents report broad use of AI technologies, especially for automated indexing, improved content accessibility as well as localisation. AI is used for processing audio or video, language or text data or for knowledge management purposes. 2. Among the technologies used are ASR, TTS, NLP, NER, MT, summarisation, search and recommender engines, content classification, subtitling, vision and metadata extraction (see Appendix 2: Glossary – Terms and Abbreviations). 3. AI technologies foreseen for future use are more experimental and include the automated detection of illegal content and deep fakes as well as flexible curation technologies. 4. There is a big demand for large amounts of training data including labelled, structured and unstructured data, domain-specific training data, acoustic data and data for illegal content. 5. There is also a need for more language technologies for all European languages, including ASR, TTS, MT, content curation services and metadata extraction as well as Linked Data. 6. In terms of policies, it is suggested to focus upon an ethical framework regarding the use and misuse of AI that protects human values and fosters cultural and linguistic diversity. It should also protect against the misuse of AI for false news and misinformation. 7. Regarding opportunities, many respondents suggest concentrating on the AI-based production of high quality content. In addition, AI allows unlimited localisation and makes it possible for a fragmented and culturally diverse ecosystem to survive in a world dominated by capital-intensive ventures based in the US. 8. The consumption of intentionally created false or manipulative content is seen as an imminent danger. It is stressed that, as video is quickly becoming our main means of communication, there is a threat that relates to the use of AI for misinformation and manipulation, which could have an impact on the foundations of our democratic society. 9. The awareness of the European AI tool market varies. Some perceive the market to be non-existent, others perceive it to be highly fragmented. Due to the dominance of non-European technology enterprises, European companies should be supported more. 10. Collaboration at the European level is seen as essential because individual players have limitations and difficulties in using AI technologies. Europe’s multilingualism is seen as crucial: to guarantee inclusiveness and accessibility, tools need to be made available, especially for under-resourced languages.

Külső szerző

Georg Rehm

EMAS in the European Parliament: A quiet success story

28-02-2020

The European Union (EU) Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a voluntary management instrument for companies and other organisations wanting to evaluate, report and continuously improve their environmental performance. In 2007, as part of its commitment to making a long-term contribution to sustainable development, the European Parliament became one of the few EU institutions and the first parliament in the EU to obtain EMAS certification. Through its environmental management system it is able ...

The European Union (EU) Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a voluntary management instrument for companies and other organisations wanting to evaluate, report and continuously improve their environmental performance. In 2007, as part of its commitment to making a long-term contribution to sustainable development, the European Parliament became one of the few EU institutions and the first parliament in the EU to obtain EMAS certification. Through its environmental management system it is able to track progress towards targets with regard to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and waste, promoting the efficient use of energy, water and paper, and incorporating environmental guidelines into procurement procedures. Concerted efforts have resulted in achieving or exceeding several of the targets set in 2017. The targets were revised accordingly; on 16 December 2019, the Bureau adopted a decision setting new targets to be achieved by the end of the 9th parliamentary term. This document details the Parliament's progress to date in meeting its targets in all of the above-mentioned areas, and maps out its ambitions for the future.

Külső szerző

This document is an update of a December 2018 publication, compiled and edited by Desislava Boyadjieva, with graphics by Nadejda Kresnichka-Nikolchova, Publications Management and Editorial Unit, EPRS, on behalf of the EMAS Unit.

Indonesia: Economic indicators and trade with EU

19-12-2019

Which economy grew faster over the past 15 years – the EU or Indonesia? How many Indonesian women have a job, and what is the unemployment rate? Which country is Indonesia's biggest trading partner? What kind of products does the EU import from Indonesia? How does Indonesia compare with the global average in terms of human development, income inequality and corruption? You can find the answers to these and other questions in our EPRS publication on Indonesia: economic indicators and trade with EU ...

Which economy grew faster over the past 15 years – the EU or Indonesia? How many Indonesian women have a job, and what is the unemployment rate? Which country is Indonesia's biggest trading partner? What kind of products does the EU import from Indonesia? How does Indonesia compare with the global average in terms of human development, income inequality and corruption? You can find the answers to these and other questions in our EPRS publication on Indonesia: economic indicators and trade with EU, one of a series of infographics on the world's main economies produced in collaboration with the European University Institute's GlobalStat.

Women in parliaments

18-12-2019

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by political group. It also gives an overview of female representatives in the EP by Member State and outlines the gender quotas applicable to the EP elections in May 2019. This is a further updated version of an infographic of which the previous ...

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by political group. It also gives an overview of female representatives in the EP by Member State and outlines the gender quotas applicable to the EP elections in May 2019. This is a further updated version of an infographic of which the previous edition was published in February 2019.

Külső szerző

CHAHRI, Samy

Research for PECH Committee - Seafood Industry Integration in all EU Member States with a coastline

18-12-2019

This study researched the drivers and mechanisms of both structural and non-structural horizontal and vertical integration in the seafood industry in all Member States with a coastline. The objective of the study was to identify trends among the Member States. The observed trends generally fall into three broad, inter-linked categories: regulatory environment, natural resources and firm performance.

This study researched the drivers and mechanisms of both structural and non-structural horizontal and vertical integration in the seafood industry in all Member States with a coastline. The objective of the study was to identify trends among the Member States. The observed trends generally fall into three broad, inter-linked categories: regulatory environment, natural resources and firm performance.

Külső szerző

Ward Warmerdam, Barbara Kuepper, Jeroen Walstra, Mara Werkman, Milena Levicharova, Linnea Wikström, Daniel Skerrit, Laura Enthoven, Robin Davies

Mercosur: Economic indicators and trade with EU

10-12-2019

Mercosur, the 'southern common market', was founded in 1991 when Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asunción. In 2012, Venezuela formally joined Mercosur as a fifth member, but in December 2016 the country was suspended temporarily for failure to transpose Mercosur rules into Venezuelan law. In August 2017, the suspension was prolonged indefinitely. This paper presents economic indicators for the four members, for example showing their GDP and labour market situations, ...

Mercosur, the 'southern common market', was founded in 1991 when Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asunción. In 2012, Venezuela formally joined Mercosur as a fifth member, but in December 2016 the country was suspended temporarily for failure to transpose Mercosur rules into Venezuelan law. In August 2017, the suspension was prolonged indefinitely. This paper presents economic indicators for the four members, for example showing their GDP and labour market situations, and it also shows those countries’ relative positions on several indexes that assess the situation in terms of doing business, corruption and human development. Finally, it looks at trade between the EU and Mercosur – of both goods and services – highlighting the main trading partners, and the main products and services that the EU exports to and imports from the four Mercosur members.

Key features of 2020 Draft Budgetary Plans

12-11-2019

This document compares the key features of the 2020 Draft Budgetary Plans (DBP), as submitted by the Euro Area Member States by mid of October 2019, with the autumn 2019 forecasts by the European Commission (EC) and the key features included in the 2019 Stability Programmes (SP), as submitted by the Euro Area Member States by end of April 2019, with the 2019 spring forecasts by the EC. While blue cells indicate that the Member State is more optimistic than the EC forecast, grey cells indicate that ...

This document compares the key features of the 2020 Draft Budgetary Plans (DBP), as submitted by the Euro Area Member States by mid of October 2019, with the autumn 2019 forecasts by the European Commission (EC) and the key features included in the 2019 Stability Programmes (SP), as submitted by the Euro Area Member States by end of April 2019, with the 2019 spring forecasts by the EC. While blue cells indicate that the Member State is more optimistic than the EC forecast, grey cells indicate that the Member State is less optimistic than the EC forecast. An overview comparing these figures with the required fiscal efforts and the medium-term budgetary objectives (MTO), as included in the latest Council decisions/recommendations, is provided in a separate EGOV document.

Teachers: Contributing to the EU's future

04-10-2019

Among all the factors that contribute to the school environment, it is considered that teachers have the greatest impact on pupils’ learning outcomes. Their work is celebrated on World Teachers’ Day, every 5 October since 1994. This is an occasion to honour the teaching profession worldwide, take stock of achievements, and address some outstanding issues, notably how to attract and retain the brightest minds and young talents in the profession. This infographic presents data on teachers in the EU ...

Among all the factors that contribute to the school environment, it is considered that teachers have the greatest impact on pupils’ learning outcomes. Their work is celebrated on World Teachers’ Day, every 5 October since 1994. This is an occasion to honour the teaching profession worldwide, take stock of achievements, and address some outstanding issues, notably how to attract and retain the brightest minds and young talents in the profession. This infographic presents data on teachers in the EU, looking for instance at the age profile of teachers in different EU Member States, at pupil-teacher ratios, at the split of men and women in teaching jobs, at requirements for continuing professional development and at teachers' salaries in the different Member States.

Violence against women in the EU: State of play

02-09-2019

Violence against women is a violation of human rights and a form of gender-based discrimination. Rooted in inequalities between men and women, it takes many forms. Estimates about the scale of the problem are alarming. Such violence has a major impact on victims and imposes a significant cost burden on society. The instruments put in place by the United Nations and Council of Europe, including the latter’s 'Istanbul Convention', to which the EU plans to accede, are benchmarks in efforts to combat ...

Violence against women is a violation of human rights and a form of gender-based discrimination. Rooted in inequalities between men and women, it takes many forms. Estimates about the scale of the problem are alarming. Such violence has a major impact on victims and imposes a significant cost burden on society. The instruments put in place by the United Nations and Council of Europe, including the latter’s 'Istanbul Convention', to which the EU plans to accede, are benchmarks in efforts to combat violence against women. The EU is tackling the problem in various ways, but has no binding instrument designed specifically to protect women from violence. Although there are similarities between national policies to combat violence against women, the Member States have adopted different approaches to the problem. Parliament's efforts have focused on strengthening EU policy in the area. Parliament has repeatedly called for a European Union strategy to counter violence against women, including a legally binding instrument. Stakeholders have expressed a range of concerns, such as the impact of the current economic climate on the prevalence of violence and funding for prevention and support for victims, and have highlighted the need for a comprehensive EU political framework on eliminating violence against women. They have also launched new initiatives of their own. This is a further update of an earlier briefing by Anna Dimitrova-Stull, of February 2014. The most recent previous edition was from November 2017.

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