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Carbon dioxide removal: Nature-based and technological solutions

23-02-2021

As a party to the Paris Agreement, the European Union has committed to implementing climate mitigation policies to keep the average temperature rise to well below 2°C, while pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. Meeting the more ambitious goal of 1.5°C requires bringing the level of global net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by around 2050, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Following this scientific consensus, the European Commission presented in 2019 the European ...

As a party to the Paris Agreement, the European Union has committed to implementing climate mitigation policies to keep the average temperature rise to well below 2°C, while pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. Meeting the more ambitious goal of 1.5°C requires bringing the level of global net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by around 2050, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Following this scientific consensus, the European Commission presented in 2019 the European Green Deal as the strategy towards a climate-neutral Europe by 2050, and proposed a European climate law in 2020 to make this target legally binding. The IPCC scenarios consistent with limiting the temperature rise to 1.5°C show that removing CO2 from the atmosphere is essential and complements the implementation of emissions reduction policies. In line with this, the European science academies recommend prioritising deep emissions cuts, but also to start developing a portfolio of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) options immediately. Various options are being discussed in light of the growing consensus that meeting the established targets is dependent on CDR. These range from nature-based practices – such as forestation, soil carbon sequestration and wetland restoration – to technological alternatives such as enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, and direct air capture and storage. Nature-based solutions stand out as more cost-effective and viable in the short run, while some technological alternatives have potential to become more relevant later this century. The European Commission recognises the crucial role of CDR, and intends to focus on nature-based options. An extensive revision of the EU climate mitigation legislation, planned for 2021, will provide an opportunity to set a regulatory framework for CDR. The European Parliament has repeatedly called for prioritising emissions reductions over CDR, and stressed the importance of conserving biodiversity and enhancing natural sinks and reservoirs. Its position on the proposed European climate law involves removing GHGs that exceed manmade emissions in the EU and each Member State from 2051.

Az éghajlatváltozás és a környezet

01-11-2017

A 2015. decemberi párizsi ENSZ éghajlat-konferencián a világ összes részéről érkező felek megállapodtak abban, hogy a globális felmelegedést az iparosodást megelőző szinthez viszonyítva jóval 2 Celsius-fok alatt korlátozzák. Az EU kötelezettséget vállalt arra, hogy 2030-ra az 1990-es szinthez képest legalább 40%-kal csökkenti az üvegházhatást okozó gázok kibocsátását, egyúttal 27%-kal javítja az energiahatékonyságot, és a teljes fogyasztás 27%-ára növeli a megújuló energiaforrások részarányát. Az ...

A 2015. decemberi párizsi ENSZ éghajlat-konferencián a világ összes részéről érkező felek megállapodtak abban, hogy a globális felmelegedést az iparosodást megelőző szinthez viszonyítva jóval 2 Celsius-fok alatt korlátozzák. Az EU kötelezettséget vállalt arra, hogy 2030-ra az 1990-es szinthez képest legalább 40%-kal csökkenti az üvegházhatást okozó gázok kibocsátását, egyúttal 27%-kal javítja az energiahatékonyságot, és a teljes fogyasztás 27%-ára növeli a megújuló energiaforrások részarányát. Az éghajlatváltozás elleni fellépésben kulcsszerepet játszó mechanizmus az EU kibocsátáskereskedelmi rendszere.

Post-2020 reform of the EU Emissions Trading System

28-10-2016

In July 2015, the European Commission proposed a reform of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) for the period 2021-2030, following the guidance set by the October 2014 European Council. The proposed directive introduces a new limit on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the ETS sector to achieve the EU climate targets for 2030, new rules for addressing carbon leakage, and provisions for funding innovation and modernisation in the energy sector. It encourages Member States to compensate for indirect ...

In July 2015, the European Commission proposed a reform of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) for the period 2021-2030, following the guidance set by the October 2014 European Council. The proposed directive introduces a new limit on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the ETS sector to achieve the EU climate targets for 2030, new rules for addressing carbon leakage, and provisions for funding innovation and modernisation in the energy sector. It encourages Member States to compensate for indirect carbon costs. In combination with the Market Stability Reserve agreed in May 2015, the proposed reform sets out the EU ETS rules for the period up to 2030, giving greater certainty to industry and to investors. In the European Parliament, the ENVI Committee takes the lead on the proposal, while it shares competence with the ITRE Committee on some aspects. The ITRE Committee adopted its opinion on 13 October 2016; the vote in the ENVI Committee is expected in December. This briefing updates an earlier edition, of June 2016: PE 583.851. A more recent edition of this document is available. Find it by searching by the document title at this address: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/home.html

Negative greenhouse gas emissions: Assessments of feasibility, potential effectiveness, costs and risks

10-06-2015

The negotiating text for the new international climate agreement contains several references to 'net-zero' carbon emissions. This level of emissions is to be achieved some time in the second half of this century to avoid the dangerous levels of global warming that would result from high greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Since some carbon emissions cannot be avoided completely (for example in agriculture, aviation and iron production), carbon dioxide (CO2) would have to be removed from ...

The negotiating text for the new international climate agreement contains several references to 'net-zero' carbon emissions. This level of emissions is to be achieved some time in the second half of this century to avoid the dangerous levels of global warming that would result from high greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Since some carbon emissions cannot be avoided completely (for example in agriculture, aviation and iron production), carbon dioxide (CO2) would have to be removed from the air, resulting in 'negative emissions' that compensate for the remaining emissions. Negative emissions may also be needed to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations if safe limits are exceeded. Most of the climate stabilisation scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assume the use of negative emission technologies. Recent reports by Oxford University and the US National Academy of Sciences assess available and emerging negative emission technologies, along with their benefits and risks. The reports agree that negative emission technologies are not a substitute for substantial cuts in emissions, but they are expected to play an important role in climate stabilisation by compensating for the remaining emissions. The cheapest and least risky approaches in the short to medium term are forestation and soil carbon enhancement. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage may play a big role later in this century. Other technologies are still considered too expensive, risky and energy-intensive. Questions of financing and governance remain unresolved.

U.S. Climate Change Policy

15-04-2015

This document reviews and updates the previous 2013 report providing an overview of the climate change policy in the United States. Starting with the emissions trend it then makes some general remarks about policy making in the U.S. before entering into concrete climate policy, both domestically and at international level. Finally, there is a section displaying three climate topics of mutual interest for the EU and the U.S. This document was provided by Policy Department A for the Committee on the ...

This document reviews and updates the previous 2013 report providing an overview of the climate change policy in the United States. Starting with the emissions trend it then makes some general remarks about policy making in the U.S. before entering into concrete climate policy, both domestically and at international level. Finally, there is a section displaying three climate topics of mutual interest for the EU and the U.S. This document was provided by Policy Department A for the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) in view of the ENVI delegation to Washington from 16-19 March 2015.

Metanol: a közlekedésben használt hidrogén- és szén-dioxid-alapú jövőbeli üzemanyag?

03-04-2014

E tájékoztató feljegyzés a STOA alábbi projektjén alapul: „Metanol: a közlekedésben használt hidrogén- és szén-dioxid-alapú jövőbeli üzemanyag?” A projekt a metanol szén-dioxidból történő előállításának technológiai, környezeti és gazdasági akadályait, valamint a metanol európai közúti közlekedésben való felhasználásának lehetőségeit vizsgálja. A költségek és hasznok értékelése az életciklus-szemlélet alapján történik azzal a céllal, hogy összehasonlítsák a metanol előállításához felhasználható különféle ...

E tájékoztató feljegyzés a STOA alábbi projektjén alapul: „Metanol: a közlekedésben használt hidrogén- és szén-dioxid-alapú jövőbeli üzemanyag?” A projekt a metanol szén-dioxidból történő előállításának technológiai, környezeti és gazdasági akadályait, valamint a metanol európai közúti közlekedésben való felhasználásának lehetőségeit vizsgálja. A költségek és hasznok értékelése az életciklus-szemlélet alapján történik azzal a céllal, hogy összehasonlítsák a metanol előállításához felhasználható különféle alapanyagokat, valamint ismertessék, hogy a szén-dioxidból nyert metanol milyen előnyökkel szolgálhat a közlekedési ágazatban a sokrétűbb energiaszerkezetre történő átállás terén. Közép- és hosszú távon kilátásba helyezhetők a hagyományos fosszilis tüzelőanyagoktól való függőség csökkenéséhez, valamint az ellátás biztonságát érintő alacsonyabb kockázatokhoz fűződő előnyök. Mindazonáltal nyilvánvaló, hogy számottevő és folyamatos kutatási erőfeszítésekre van szükség ahhoz, hogy a szén-dioxid olyan hatékony és versenyképes primer nyersanyaggá váljon, amely nem csupán a közlekedési ágazat számára vonzó, hanem más iparágak számára is.

Külső szerző

Stefano Faberi and Loriana Paolucci, reviewed by Andrea Ricci (ISIS) , Daniela Velte and Izaskun Jiménez (Tecnalia)

Proceedeings of the Workshop on "Carbon Capture and Storage Technology in Europe"

12-07-2013

This workshop was held at the European Parliament in Brussels on 18 June 2013 by the ENVI committee in the context of its implementation report on 'Developing and Applying Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology in Europe'. The aim of the workshop was to discuss the potential role of CCS in reducing carbon pollution, as well as its barriers and challenges and possible ways to move forward with CCS in Europe.

This workshop was held at the European Parliament in Brussels on 18 June 2013 by the ENVI committee in the context of its implementation report on 'Developing and Applying Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology in Europe'. The aim of the workshop was to discuss the potential role of CCS in reducing carbon pollution, as well as its barriers and challenges and possible ways to move forward with CCS in Europe.

Külső szerző

Chris Hendriks (Ecofys), Giles Dickson (Alstom Power), John Scowcroft (Global CCS Institute), Mike Fernandez (Ministry of the Alberta Government), Tom Howes (European Commission), Isabelle Czernichowski-Lauriol (CO2GeoNet, CGS, BRGM - French Geological Survey), Paal J. Frisvold (Bellona Europa aisbl), Beatrice Coda (European Commission, DG CLIMA) and Bill Spence (Shell), Graeme Sweeney (European Technology Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants - ZEP)

United States' Climate Change Policy - Domestic and International Dimension

02-07-2013

This note provides an overview of the climate change policy in the United States. A first section is dedicated to the description of the state of play and the possible trends in the US domestic policy. The second section is aimed to provide an overview of the US position in the international negotiations. This latter is a first excerpt of the forthcoming study on the Conference of the Parties (COP19) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

This note provides an overview of the climate change policy in the United States. A first section is dedicated to the description of the state of play and the possible trends in the US domestic policy. The second section is aimed to provide an overview of the US position in the international negotiations. This latter is a first excerpt of the forthcoming study on the Conference of the Parties (COP19) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Külső szerző

US Climate Change Policy ; International Dimension: Anke Herold and Martin Cames (Öko-Institut e.V.)

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