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The rapid growth of genetic databases worldwide, coupled with fast-decreasing costs and the rapid pace of technological change, has increased the possibility of every human genome on Earth being sequenced this century. This raises ethical and legal questions on data privacy and ownership. While a global genetic database would revolutionise preventive medicine and research, new forms of surveillance, discrimination and power imbalances could emerge. The global interplay between the individual, the ...

This study identifies and examines sources of regulatory divergence within the AI act regarding the obligations and limitations upon public and private sector actors when using certain AI systems. A reflection upon possible impacts and consequences is provided, and a range of policy options is suggested for the European Parliament that could respond to the identified sources of divergence. The study is specifically focused on three AI application areas: manipulative AI, social scoring and biometric ...

This is the fifth briefing within a series benchmarking Parliament's activities against citizens' expectations submitted to the Conference on the Future of Europe. In a number of different ways, citizens seized the opportunity to call for a high level of data protection and privacy, as well as their rigorous implementation. They recommend measures promoting industry compliance, increasing citizens' control over data, enhancing enforcement and limiting the monitoring, profiling and manipulation of ...

Automated decision-making by systems that use machine learning to dynamically improve performance are still seen as lacking the 'human perspective' and flexibility to adapt to the particular nuances of specific cases. But perhaps, as they lack the 'cunning' to hide their biases, automated systems actually make fairer decisions than do humans, when these decisions are based on data that have been properly curated.

This study describes two main dimensions of 5G technology, i.e. privacy and security. This research paper focuses on the analysis of cybersecurity risks and threats, privacy challenges and 5G technology opportunities at EU level and worldwide, as well as the relationship between cybersecurity risks and privacy issues. The methodological framework for this assessment of the impact of 5G technology is built on three pillars: (i) a document-based analysis; (ii) a parallel analysis with stakeholder involvement ...

The datafication of everyday life and data scandals have made the protection of personal information an increasingly important social, legal and political matter for the EU. In recent years, awareness of data rights and expectations for EU action in this area have both grown considerably. The right to privacy and the right to protection of personal data are both enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU and in the EU Treaties. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 gave ...

Regulating facial recognition in the EU

Analisi approfondita 15-09-2021

The European Union is considering regulating facial recognition in the proposed artificial intelligence act, currently under discussion. This EPRS publication explains the state of play and further highlights the concerns raised by the use and the potential impacts on people's fundamental rights of facial recognition technologies. Against this background, the paper explores the current EU legal framework applicable to facial recognition and examines the recent proposals for regulating facial recognition ...

Deepfakes are hyper-realistic media products created through artificial intelligence (AI) techniques that manipulate how people look and the things that they appear to say or do. They hit the headlines in 2018 with a deepfake video of Barack Obama, which was designed to raise awareness of their challenges. The accessibility and outputs of deepfake generation tools are improving rapidly, and their use is increasing exponentially. A wide range of malicious uses have been identified, including fraud ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI and PETI Committees, analyses the use of biometric techniques from an ethical and legal perspective. Biometric techniques raise a number of specific ethical issues, as an individual cannot easily change biometric features, and as these techniques tend to intrude into the human body and ultimately the human self. Further issues are more generally associated ...

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by ...