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On 28-30 June 2022, NATO leaders met in Madrid and adopted a new strategic concept, rewriting their assessment of the threat environment in the light of Russia's war on Ukraine. NATO also overhauled its defence and deterrence posture, and officially invited Finland and Sweden to join the Alliance.

This is the fifth Peace and Security Outlook produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). The series analyses and explains the European Union's contribution to the promotion of peace and security internationally, through its various external policies. The study provides an overview of the issues and current state of play. It looks first at the concept of peace and the changing nature of the geopolitical environment as European security faces the most tangible military threat since ...

The thirty NATO member states agreed on 29 June to invite Finland and Sweden to join the Western military alliance, accepting the Nordic countries' accession bids, which came after Russia launched its war on Ukraine nearly five months ago. The June NATO Summit in Madrid also endorsed a new Strategic Concept and branded the Russian Federation as 'the most significant and direct threat to Allies' security and to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic area'. NATO also agreed to boost significantly ...

Nuclear weapons pose an existential threat to humanity. Russia's threat to use nuclear weapons in the context of its war on Ukraine has been a stark reminder that this threat is real. At present, nine states are known to have military nuclear programmes. Over recent years, tensions among nuclear-armed states have increased, leading to 'outright strategic rivalry and competition' among several of them. Moreover, experts are concerned that the 'fabric of international institutions, treaties, and norms ...

This analysis looks into the complex relationship between two trends in international governance: an increase in multilateral arrangements between countries in order to govern internationally on the one hand, and a lack of democratic control over the decisions taken by multilateral organisations or conferences on the other. Multilateralism in the modern sense refers to an international mode of operation involving peaceful negotiations and diplomacy, also referred to as a ‘rules-based international ...

'This is Europe' – an initiative proposed by the President of the European Parliament, Roberta Metsola – consists of a series of debates with EU leaders to discuss their visions for the future of the European Union. On 22 June, the Prime Minister of Croatia, Andrej Plenković, was the third EU leader to address the Parliament since its Conference of Presidents endorsed the initiative on 28 April. Mr Plenković considered Croatia to be at the centre of EU integration and expressed his support for more ...

This in-depth analysis provides an overview of alignment of EU enlargement countries with EU sanctions against Russia due to its aggression against Ukraine. It analyses the legal and political basis for the alignment with the EU’s Common and Foreign Policy, including the restrictive measures (sanctions). Furthermore, it provides a factual account of the main steps taken by the countries covered by the EU enlargement policy in the Western Balkans and Turkey (Türkiye), coupled by a brief assessment ...

'This is Europe' – an initiative proposed by the President of the European Parliament, Roberta Metsola – consists of a series of debates with EU leaders to discuss their visions for the future of the European Union. Following the first speech in this series by the Italian Prime Minister, Mario Draghi, on 3 May 2022, the Irish Taoiseach (Prime Minister), Micheál Martin, was the second EU leader to address the Parliament, on 8 June.1 Mr Martin suggested numerous ways to strengthen and further develop ...

After one year of deliberation, the Conference on the Future of Europe (CoFoE) delivered its first result in the form of 49 proposals, including concrete objectives, and more than 320 potential measures on ways of achieving them. As a follow up to the CoFoE, the European Parliament called on 4 May 2022 for the launch of a Convention under Article 48 TEU; this request has also received the support of some EU leaders, notably the French President, Emmanuel Macron, the Italian Prime Minister, Mario ...

Russia's continuing war on Ukraine was central to the EU leaders' debates at their special meeting on 30-31 May 2022. Closely linked to Ukraine, food security, security and defence, and energy were also high on the agenda. EU leaders approved €9 billion in special macro-financial assistance for Ukraine and agreed on a sixth package of sanctions against Russia, including a ban on seaborne oil (two-thirds of imports) with a temporary exemption for pipeline oil imports. On food security, the European ...