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CO2 emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles

09-04-2019

In May 2018, the Commission proposed a regulation setting the first-ever CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehicles in the EU, as part of the third mobility package. It would require the average CO2 emissions from new trucks in 2025 to be 15 % lower than in 2019. For 2030, the proposal sets an indicative reduction target of at least 30 % compared to 2019. Special incentives are provided for zero- and low-emission vehicles. The proposed regulation applies to four categories of ...

In May 2018, the Commission proposed a regulation setting the first-ever CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehicles in the EU, as part of the third mobility package. It would require the average CO2 emissions from new trucks in 2025 to be 15 % lower than in 2019. For 2030, the proposal sets an indicative reduction target of at least 30 % compared to 2019. Special incentives are provided for zero- and low-emission vehicles. The proposed regulation applies to four categories of large trucks, which together account for 65 %-70 % of CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. The Commission proposes to review the legislation in 2022 in order to set a binding target for 2030, and to extend its application to smaller trucks, buses, coaches and trailers. In the European Parliament, the proposal was referred to the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, which adopted its report on 18 October 2018. Parliament voted on the report on 14 November 2018. Trilogue negotiations were concluded on 18 February 2019 with an agreement that sets a legally binding 30 % reduction target for the average fleet emissions of new trucks by 2030. The Parliament is expected to vote on the agreed text during the April II plenary session. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Motor vehicles: new approval and market surveillance rules

05-07-2018

The automotive industry is a major player in the European economy, accounting for 6.4% of gross domestic product and 2.3 million jobs in the European Union (EU). In September 2015, the Volkswagen (VW) case highlighted weaknesses in the implementation of type-approval rules for motor vehicles in the European Union, in particular as regards standards on emissions of air pollutants and carbon dioxide. In 2016, as part of preparations from previous years but also in response to the VW case, the European ...

The automotive industry is a major player in the European economy, accounting for 6.4% of gross domestic product and 2.3 million jobs in the European Union (EU). In September 2015, the Volkswagen (VW) case highlighted weaknesses in the implementation of type-approval rules for motor vehicles in the European Union, in particular as regards standards on emissions of air pollutants and carbon dioxide. In 2016, as part of preparations from previous years but also in response to the VW case, the European Commission proposed strengthening the type-approval system for motor vehicles. Its goal is to ensure effective enforcement of rules (including through market surveillance), to strengthen the quality and independence of technical tests and to introduce EU oversight on the type-approval process. After completion of the legislative procedure, the final act was signed on 30 May 2018. The regulation will apply from 1 September 2020.

Omologazione e vigilanza del mercato dei veicoli

11-04-2018

Nel 2016, dopo il lavoro realizzato negli anni precedenti, ma anche in risposta al caso Volkswagen (VW), la Commissione europea ha presentato una proposta per rafforzare l'omologazione e la vigilanza del mercato dei veicoli a motore. I negoziati in prima lettura con il Consiglio sono sfociati in un compromesso che attende ora di essere votato in Aula durante la tornata di aprile.

Nel 2016, dopo il lavoro realizzato negli anni precedenti, ma anche in risposta al caso Volkswagen (VW), la Commissione europea ha presentato una proposta per rafforzare l'omologazione e la vigilanza del mercato dei veicoli a motore. I negoziati in prima lettura con il Consiglio sono sfociati in un compromesso che attende ora di essere votato in Aula durante la tornata di aprile.

Review of CO2 emission standards for new cars and vans

31-01-2018

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 8 November 2017 and referred to European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). According to the IA, road transport caused 22 % of all EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2015, 73 % of which came from cars and vans (IA, p. 19). The transport sector (except for aviation) is not covered by ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 8 November 2017 and referred to European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). According to the IA, road transport caused 22 % of all EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2015, 73 % of which came from cars and vans (IA, p. 19). The transport sector (except for aviation) is not covered by the EU's emissions trading system (ETS), adopted in 2005 in the context of international efforts to reduce GHG. Instead, the EU has put sector-specific legislation in place, in particular to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. When it became clear that a 1999 voluntary emissions reduction agreement between the European Commission and the Association of European Automobile Manufacturers had not delivered, the EU adopted two regulations on mandatory CO2 standards for all new passenger cars and vans, in 2009 and 2011 respectively. Both were amended in 2014 with new emissions targets. After the Paris Agreement, countries such as China, the United States of America (USA) and Japan quickly began implementing ambitious policies for low-carbon transport. To comply with the agreement, the EU included the proposal to amend the current legislation in the European Commission's 2017 work programme. The review of the current regulations started in 2015, with publication of the European Commission's extensive ex-post evaluation. It found the current regulations effective and more efficient than expected, but also identified weaknesses. These included the measurement of emissions (test procedures), the utility parameter (mass or footprint) and emissions from energy and vehicle production, currently not covered (IA, pp. 15-16). As announced in its May 2017 communication, Europe on the Move, the Commission is pursuing an integrated approach to address all factors and actors relevant for CO2 emissions, from environment to industry (IA, p. 11). This proposal is therefore part of a comprehensive legislative package aiming to ensure 'clean, competitive and connected mobility for all' (IA, pp. 11-12, 17) and is flanked by important initiatives such as the EU action plan on alternative fuels infrastructure, revision of the Clean Vehicles Directive and the battery initiative.

Emission performance standards for new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles

12-04-2017

According to the various reports and assessments presented in this briefing, the existing cars and vans regulations appear to be well implemented, with the majority of car and van manufacturers meeting their CO2 specific emission targets in 2015, and some well on their way to reaching the 2020/2021 targets. However, the ultimate aim of the regulations is to deliver a significant reduction in real-world CO2 emissions. While CO2 emissions as measured on the test cycle is one element of this, there ...

According to the various reports and assessments presented in this briefing, the existing cars and vans regulations appear to be well implemented, with the majority of car and van manufacturers meeting their CO2 specific emission targets in 2015, and some well on their way to reaching the 2020/2021 targets. However, the ultimate aim of the regulations is to deliver a significant reduction in real-world CO2 emissions. While CO2 emissions as measured on the test cycle is one element of this, there are other external trends that influence CO2 emissions from cars and vans, including the total number of cars and vans and the distance covered, and the level and composition of fuels. The effectiveness of the legislation should be considered in conjunction with other policy instruments, including laboratory test cycles, embedded emissions or the use of CO2-linked vehicle taxation. In addition, any future evaluation of the regulations and the setting of new effective emission limits should take into account the introduction of the new worldwide harmonised light vehicles test procedure (WLTP) in September 2017, and the entry into force of the new type approval regulation. To significantly reduce transport emissions, the setting out of new CO2 emission targets could include the adoption of a number of measures that would allow for better monitoring of real driving emissions. In order to achieve lasting and sustainable emission reductions in the transport sector, and rebuild the trust of consumers in the regulatory system and the car industry, a much broader and holistic approach appears necessary. This could consist of a systemic and integrated approach combining various policy instruments, accommodating the use of alternative energies in transport, increased vehicle energy efficiency and intelligent management of transport demand and infrastructure.

Veicoli a motore: Omologazione e vigilanza del mercato

29-03-2017

Nel 2016, dopo il lavoro realizzato negli anni precedenti, ma anche in risposta al caso VW, la Commissione europea ha presentato una proposta per rafforzare l'omologazione e la vigilanza del mercato per i veicoli a motore. Il Parlamento europeo dovrebbe votare in prima lettura sulla proposta nel corso della plenaria di aprile.

Nel 2016, dopo il lavoro realizzato negli anni precedenti, ma anche in risposta al caso VW, la Commissione europea ha presentato una proposta per rafforzare l'omologazione e la vigilanza del mercato per i veicoli a motore. Il Parlamento europeo dovrebbe votare in prima lettura sulla proposta nel corso della plenaria di aprile.

What if the energy grid needed cars?

19-09-2016

Smart transportation is widely seen as creating a world in which the vehicles of the future have the ability to make decisions without human input. But in addition, car batteries can serve as an electricity storage mechanism, supporting stabilisation of the electricity grid through vehicle-to-grid technology.   Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

Smart transportation is widely seen as creating a world in which the vehicles of the future have the ability to make decisions without human input. But in addition, car batteries can serve as an electricity storage mechanism, supporting stabilisation of the electricity grid through vehicle-to-grid technology.   Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

Legal Obligations Relating to Emission Measurements in the EU Automotive Sector

15-06-2016

This study looks at the discrepancy in NOx emissions between type-approval tests and real-world driving. It examines the legal stakeholder obligations with regard to emission measurements in the European type-approval process and offers insights into the practical implementation of type-approval procedures throughout the EU. This study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee of Inquiry into Emission Measurements in the Automotive Sector (EMIS).

This study looks at the discrepancy in NOx emissions between type-approval tests and real-world driving. It examines the legal stakeholder obligations with regard to emission measurements in the European type-approval process and offers insights into the practical implementation of type-approval procedures throughout the EU. This study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee of Inquiry into Emission Measurements in the Automotive Sector (EMIS).

Autore esterno

Holger HEINFELLNER, Clemens KONRAD, Günther LICHTBLAU, Barbara SCHODL, Gudrun STRANNER and Ralf WINTER

Road charges for private vehicles in the EU

25-05-2016

Road charges are fees for the use of a particular road network or section of road. Since the 1990s, the focus of European transport policy has shifted from the application of road pricing purely as a means to generate revenue towards the use of charges as an instrument against pollution and congestion. Charging for road infrastructure is an option to implement basic principles of EU policy such as the 'user-pays principle' or the 'polluter-pays principle'. It can serve different functions such as ...

Road charges are fees for the use of a particular road network or section of road. Since the 1990s, the focus of European transport policy has shifted from the application of road pricing purely as a means to generate revenue towards the use of charges as an instrument against pollution and congestion. Charging for road infrastructure is an option to implement basic principles of EU policy such as the 'user-pays principle' or the 'polluter-pays principle'. It can serve different functions such as financing, managing traffic flow or making all costs perceptible so as to influence the behaviour of road users. As the transport of goods is linked with the functioning of the Single Market, the charging of heavy goods vehicles is regulated at European level. In contrast, there is no regulation at European level on the road charging of private vehicles, though Member States establishing such schemes are obliged to apply the basic principles of the Treaties, in particular the principles of proportionality and of non-discrimination on grounds of nationality. As a consequence of the regulation at national level, many different charging schemes are applied in the EU. These vary, principally according to the way they are levied: distance-based schemes levied by means of tolls, or time-based schemes, levied using vignettes. All schemes are associated with considerable levying costs. Technological developments such as electronic charging can offer opportunities to reduce these costs. However, lack of interoperability between the various systems generates additional costs and hindrances for European mobility.

Motor vehicles: New approval and market surveillance rules - Initial Appraisal of a European Commission Impact Assessment

15-04-2016

This briefing seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment (IA) accompanying its proposal on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, adopted on 27 January 2016 and referred to Parliament’s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO). This IA is the result of a process of analysis and consultation that started in 2010. It accompanies a proposal which the Commission presented ...

This briefing seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment (IA) accompanying its proposal on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, adopted on 27 January 2016 and referred to Parliament’s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO). This IA is the result of a process of analysis and consultation that started in 2010. It accompanies a proposal which the Commission presented rapidly after the Volkswagen case and in response to the calls made by Parliament in its resolution of October 2015. Some useful information can be found in the IA; however, even bearing in mind that impact assessments should not unduly delay the legislative process, an initial appraisal of its quality would suggest that this IA is not presented in a way that facilitates consideration by the co-legislators. The decision to publish the IA in two parts does not help overall comprehension, despite an honest attempt to show the links between the two. The problem definition devotes limited attention to the social and environmental consequences. The framing of the options makes it difficult to distinguish between essential and non-essential elements. Moreover, by the Commission's own admission, the monetisation of benefits is not sufficiently robust and gives an impression of certainty to estimates which are in fact surrounded by a high degree of uncertainty. All of these elements compromise to some extent the quality of the IA. Finally, the internal quality assurance procedures do not appear to be fully in line with BR principles, in that this IA is accompanied only by the original 2014 opinion of the IA Board, which corresponds to the measures planned at that time, without any update covering the additional material provided later in part 2 of the IA.

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