572

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The impact of algorithms for online content filtering or moderation - Upload filters

15-09-2020

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, addresses automated filtering of online content. The report introduces automated filtering as an aspect of moderation of user-generated materials. It presents the filtering technologies that are currently deployed to address different kinds of media, such as text, images, or videos. It discusses the main critical issues under the present legal ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, addresses automated filtering of online content. The report introduces automated filtering as an aspect of moderation of user-generated materials. It presents the filtering technologies that are currently deployed to address different kinds of media, such as text, images, or videos. It discusses the main critical issues under the present legal framework and makes proposals for regulation in the context of a future EU Digital Services Act.

Autore esterno

Prof. Giovanni Sartor and Dr. Andrea Loreggia

The platform economy and precarious work

11-09-2020

Platform work has rapidly developed since it first emerged in the EU, though concerns have been raised about the employment and working conditions of platform work and the risk of precariousness it entails. Platform work has, therefore, been identified as a policy priority by European policy-makers. This study presents an analytical literature review that focuses on the challenges and risks of precariousness of platform work and explores possible pathways for EU action. It covers aspects of the ...

Platform work has rapidly developed since it first emerged in the EU, though concerns have been raised about the employment and working conditions of platform work and the risk of precariousness it entails. Platform work has, therefore, been identified as a policy priority by European policy-makers. This study presents an analytical literature review that focuses on the challenges and risks of precariousness of platform work and explores possible pathways for EU action. It covers aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The analysis was prepared at the request of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs of the European Parliament.

Autore esterno

Harald Hauben (ed.), Karolien Lenaerts,Willem Waeyaert

What if fashion were good for the planet?

10-09-2020

Fashion is the second most polluting industry in the world, coming just after oil. Clothing manufacture and consumption have a huge negative impact on both the environment and people. Sustainability is not only about the environment, but is also an economic and social indicator, and the clothing industry is a good example illustrating their interconnections. Are technological innovations alone enough to 'tailor' a green and fair future for fashion?

Fashion is the second most polluting industry in the world, coming just after oil. Clothing manufacture and consumption have a huge negative impact on both the environment and people. Sustainability is not only about the environment, but is also an economic and social indicator, and the clothing industry is a good example illustrating their interconnections. Are technological innovations alone enough to 'tailor' a green and fair future for fashion?

Loot boxes in online games and their effect on consumers, in particular young consumers

17-08-2020

This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors. ...

This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors.

Autore esterno

Annette CERULLI-HARMS et al.

Enforcement and cooperation between Member States

14-08-2020

The original full study presents an overview of possible options for an effective model of enforcement for a future Digital Services Act (DSA). Four key areas of regulatory design are emphasised: the failure of self-regulation in relation to platforms; the importance of correct regulatory framing; the necessity of focusing on the internal operations of platforms; and that the scope of a DSA should be limited but include robust transparency and enforcement measures. A range of enforcement strategies ...

The original full study presents an overview of possible options for an effective model of enforcement for a future Digital Services Act (DSA). Four key areas of regulatory design are emphasised: the failure of self-regulation in relation to platforms; the importance of correct regulatory framing; the necessity of focusing on the internal operations of platforms; and that the scope of a DSA should be limited but include robust transparency and enforcement measures. A range of enforcement strategies are then evaluated across a suite of Digital Single Market (DSM) legislation, alongside barriers to Member States cooperation and effective enforcement.

Autore esterno

Melanie SMITH

Representative actions to protect the collective interests of consumers: A new deal for consumers

20-07-2020

On 11 April 2018, the European Commission published a proposal for a new directive on representative actions for the protection of the collective interests of consumers. Currently, consumer organisations or independent public bodies can bring actions in the name of consumers in courts or before administrative authorities to stop infringements of consumer legislation. According to the proposal, they would be able to demand compensation for consumers as well. The co-legislators reached a provisional ...

On 11 April 2018, the European Commission published a proposal for a new directive on representative actions for the protection of the collective interests of consumers. Currently, consumer organisations or independent public bodies can bring actions in the name of consumers in courts or before administrative authorities to stop infringements of consumer legislation. According to the proposal, they would be able to demand compensation for consumers as well. The co-legislators reached a provisional agreement on the proposal on 22 June 2020, which now needs to be confirmed by both institutions. According to the agreement, Member States would decide themselves the criteria for the designation of qualified entities for domestic actions, while the criteria for cross-border actions would be common across the whole of the EU. A loser-pays principle would be introduced, requiring the defeated party to pay the costs of the proceedings for the successful party. The Commission would be required to evaluate, within five years, whether a European ombudsman for collective redress for consumers is necessary. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age

17-07-2020

This paper summarises the discussions that took place at the workshop on “E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age”. The E-commerce directive was elaborated twenty years ago and has been key in regulating online services. However, the role of the internet has drastically evolved over the last two decades. The Chair of IMCO Committee Prof Dr Petra de Sutter and the Rapporteur for the Digital Services Act (DSA) Mr Alex Agius Saliba co-chaired this workshop in order to discuss which areas of the E-commerce ...

This paper summarises the discussions that took place at the workshop on “E-commerce rules, fit for the digital age”. The E-commerce directive was elaborated twenty years ago and has been key in regulating online services. However, the role of the internet has drastically evolved over the last two decades. The Chair of IMCO Committee Prof Dr Petra de Sutter and the Rapporteur for the Digital Services Act (DSA) Mr Alex Agius Saliba co-chaired this workshop in order to discuss which areas of the E-commerce directive are no longer fit for purpose and need reforming in the DSA.

Loot boxes in online games and their effect on consumers, in particular young consumers

16-07-2020

This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors. ...

This paper defines loot boxes and describes their behavioural effects, including problematic behaviour. It examines the regulatory framework at EU and national level within which loot boxes operate, provides an overview of public and industry practices, and derives recommendations. Framing the debate around loot boxes, away from gambling and towards consumer protection, would provide the EU with an array of tools to address problematic practices and minimise potential harm, especially for minors.

Autore esterno

Annette CERULLI-HARMS et al

What if insects were on the menu in Europe?

03-07-2020

Insects, while commonly consumed elsewhere in the world, have long been off the menu in Europe – but they could soon be creeping their way onto our plates. Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is now gaining serious interest – is it set to take Europe by swarm?

Insects, while commonly consumed elsewhere in the world, have long been off the menu in Europe – but they could soon be creeping their way onto our plates. Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is now gaining serious interest – is it set to take Europe by swarm?

Artificial intelligence: How does it work, why does it matter, and what can we do about it?

28-06-2020

Artificial intelligence (AI) is probably the defining technology of the last decade, and perhaps also the next. The aim of this report is to support meaningful reflection and productive debate about AI by providing accessible information about the full range of current and speculative techniques and their associated impacts, and setting out a wide range of regulatory, technological and societal measures that could be mobilised in response.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is probably the defining technology of the last decade, and perhaps also the next. The aim of this report is to support meaningful reflection and productive debate about AI by providing accessible information about the full range of current and speculative techniques and their associated impacts, and setting out a wide range of regulatory, technological and societal measures that could be mobilised in response.

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