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Cost of crop protection measures

16-09-2021

Existing, new and emerging crop protection practices, including mechanical techniques, precision agriculture, biocontrol, plant breeding, induced crop resistance, application of ecological principles to increase biodiversity and use of 'green' plant protection products, could help to reduce the use of conventional plant protection products and were described in an earlier STOA study. This new study provides cost estimates for various alternative crop protection practice options in the EU

Existing, new and emerging crop protection practices, including mechanical techniques, precision agriculture, biocontrol, plant breeding, induced crop resistance, application of ecological principles to increase biodiversity and use of 'green' plant protection products, could help to reduce the use of conventional plant protection products and were described in an earlier STOA study. This new study provides cost estimates for various alternative crop protection practice options in the EU

Autore esterno

DG, EPRS_This study has been written by A.B. Smit, J.H. Jager, M. Manshanden and J. Bremmer of Wageningen Research at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - September 2021

09-09-2021

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The von der Leyen Commission's six priorities: State of play in Autumn 2021

09-09-2021

This EPRS paper analyses progress in attaining the policy agenda set out by Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission, and her College of Commissioners when they took office in December 2019. It looks in particular at the state of play in respect of delivery on the six key priorities asserted at that time. Concretely, EPRS finds that, following the July 2021 plenary session, of the nearly 400 initiatives foreshadowed by the von der Leyen Commission on taking office or since (406) ...

This EPRS paper analyses progress in attaining the policy agenda set out by Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission, and her College of Commissioners when they took office in December 2019. It looks in particular at the state of play in respect of delivery on the six key priorities asserted at that time. Concretely, EPRS finds that, following the July 2021 plenary session, of the nearly 400 initiatives foreshadowed by the von der Leyen Commission on taking office or since (406), just over half have already been submitted (212). Of these, almost half have already been adopted (101), while the great majority of the remainder are either proceeding normally in the legislative process (76) or are close to adoption (10). Conversely, a certain number are proceeding very slowly or are currently blocked (25). While the Commission's first priority, the European Green Deal, ranks highest in the number of initiatives announced (90), its third priority, 'An economy that works for people', has the highest number so far actually adopted (29). Further details of the state of play on the various EU legislative proposals tabled by the Commission, including all those mentioned in this paper, can be found in the European Parliament's 'Legislative Train Schedule' website, which has also been developed by EPRS.

Ten composite indices for policy-making

08-09-2021

Evidence and data are key to good policy-making, in particular when it comes to setting priorities, mitigating negative impacts and finding optimum trade-offs. The information provided in this publication is designed to help policy-makers by providing sources of data and identifying possible bias in their use. EPRS has selected 10 composite indices in a range of policy areas from reliable sources; indices already used as references by policy-makers. For each index, a chapter presents the producers ...

Evidence and data are key to good policy-making, in particular when it comes to setting priorities, mitigating negative impacts and finding optimum trade-offs. The information provided in this publication is designed to help policy-makers by providing sources of data and identifying possible bias in their use. EPRS has selected 10 composite indices in a range of policy areas from reliable sources; indices already used as references by policy-makers. For each index, a chapter presents the producers and describes their objectives in publishing the index, the data compiled, and how that data is or could be used by policy-makers. The chapters also highlight each index's limitations.

Climate action in Latvia: Latest state of play

03-09-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) to cover the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Latvia submitted its NECP in November 2019. More than half (56 %) of Latvians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Latvia accounts for 0.3 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and its emissions increased between 2005 and 2019, in contrast ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) to cover the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Latvia submitted its NECP in November 2019. More than half (56 %) of Latvians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Latvia accounts for 0.3 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and its emissions increased between 2005 and 2019, in contrast to the average EU trend. The carbon intensity of Latvia's economy is higher than the EU average, but has declined since 2005. Emissions from the transport sector increased by 6.9 % between 2005 and 2019, accounting for 27.8 % of total emissions. The manufacturing industries and construction sector showed the biggest percentage reduction (42 %) in emissions over the period. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Latvia was allowed to increase its emissions by 17 % by 2020, compared with 2005, and in 2019 was on track to achieving the target. Latvia achieved a 41 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019 and aims to reach 50 % by 2030. The European Commission regards this ambition as adequate, but warns of possible hurdles.

Climate action in Cyprus: Latest state of play

03-09-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the 2021 to 2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Cyprus submitted its NECP in January 2020. A high proportion of Cypriots (70 %) expect national governments to tackle climate. Cyprus accounts for 0.26 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower pace than the EU ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the 2021 to 2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Cyprus submitted its NECP in January 2020. A high proportion of Cypriots (70 %) expect national governments to tackle climate. Cyprus accounts for 0.26 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The carbon intensity of the Cypriot economy decreased by close to 25 % between 2005 and 2019, at a rate slower than the EU average. Energy industry emissions fell by 3.7 % in the 2005 to 2019 period in Cyprus. Further emissions reductions are expected as the country shifts its electricity production from heavy fuel oil to natural gas by the end of 2021. Transport and industrial processes and product use were the sectors with the smallest reductions. Under the Effort-sharing Decision for the 2013 2020 period, Cyprus needed to reduce its emissions in sectors not included in the EU's emission trading system by 5 %, compared with 2005 levels. For the Effort-sharing Regulation period (2021-2030) the target is set at -21 % compared with 2005 levels. The share of renewable energy in Cyprus reached 13.8 % in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 22.9 % share is focused on changes in the heating and cooling, and electricity sectors.

Climate action in Portugal: Latest state of play

03-09-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Portugal submitted its NECP in December 2019. More than half (57%) of Portuguese people expect national governments to tackle climate change. Portugal generates 1.8 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2019, the carbon intensity of Portugal's ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Portugal submitted its NECP in December 2019. More than half (57%) of Portuguese people expect national governments to tackle climate change. Portugal generates 1.8 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2019, the carbon intensity of Portugal's economy was 22 % above the EU average, and fell at a slightly slower pace than the EU average over the 2005-2019 period. The transport sector reduced its emissions by 10.3 % between 2005 and 2019 and is the sector with the highest emissions, accounting for 26 % of Portuguese emissions in 2019. Energy sector emissions, accounting for 19 % of total emissions in 2019, fell by 50 % between 2005 and 2019 – the largest reduction in emissions of all sectors. Under EU effort-sharing legislation for the 2013-2020 period, Portugal was allowed to increase its non-ETS GHG emissions by 1 %, compared with 2005, and never surpassed its allocated emissions The share of renewable energy sources in 2019 was 30.6 %. The country's 2030 target of a 47 % share is one of the highest in the EU, with a renewable energy in electricity target of 80 % by 2030.

European climate law

31-08-2021

On 4 March 2020, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal for a European climate law, setting the objective for the EU to become climate-neutral by 2050 and establishing a framework for achieving that objective. On 17 September 2020, the Commission amended the proposal to introduce the updated 2030 climate target of a net reduction of at least 55 % of the EU's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to 1990 levels. In the European Parliament, the proposal was referred to the Committee ...

On 4 March 2020, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal for a European climate law, setting the objective for the EU to become climate-neutral by 2050 and establishing a framework for achieving that objective. On 17 September 2020, the Commission amended the proposal to introduce the updated 2030 climate target of a net reduction of at least 55 % of the EU's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to 1990 levels. In the European Parliament, the proposal was referred to the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. The Parliament adopted its position on 6 October 2020, calling for a 60 % emissions reduction by 2030 and for an independent, inter-disciplinary scientific advisory panel. Council and Parliament reached a provisional agreement on the proposal on 21 April 2021. The agreement sets a 55 % net GHG emission target for 2030 (to be complemented by additional removals from the upcoming review of the LULUCF Regulation), an EU-wide climate neutrality target for 2050, and the aim to achieve negative emissions thereafter. It envisages the use of a GHG budget for setting the 2040 target and establishes a European Scientific Advisory Board on Climate Change. Parliament approved the agreed text on 24 June 2021. The regulation was published in the Official Journal on 9 July 2021 and entered into force on 29 July 2021. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Climate action in the Netherlands: Latest state of play

30-08-2021

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. The Netherlands submitted its NECP in November 2019. A high proportion of Dutch people (73 %) expect national governments to tackle climate. The Netherlands accounts for 5.2 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. The Netherlands submitted its NECP in November 2019. A high proportion of Dutch people (73 %) expect national governments to tackle climate. The Netherlands accounts for 5.2 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The carbon intensity of the Dutch economy decreased by 29 % between 2005 and 2019, a slower rate than the EU-wide average. Energy industry emissions fell by 15 % in the 2005-2019 period in the country. Measures such as the introduction of carbon pricing, are expected to further decrease these emissions. The sector with the greatest percentage reduction in emissions between 2005 and 2019 – 55 % – was waste management. Under the Effort-sharing Decision (2013 2020) and Effort-sharing Regulation (2021-2030), the Netherlands needs to reduce its emissions in sectors not included in the EU emissions trading system by 16 % and 36 % respectively, compared with 2005 levels. The share of renewable energy sources in the country reached 8.8 % in 2019, and for 2030 the target is 27 %, to be reached mainly through solar power and offshore and onshore wind farms.

Climate action in Romania: Latest state of play

30-08-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Romania's final NECP is from April 2020. More than half (51 %) of Romanians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Romania generates 3 % of the EU-27's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced emissions faster than the EU average between 2005 ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Romania's final NECP is from April 2020. More than half (51 %) of Romanians expect national governments to tackle climate change. Romania generates 3 % of the EU-27's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduced emissions faster than the EU average between 2005 and 2019. With several energy-intensive industries present in Romania, the country's carbon intensity is much higher than the EU average, but decreasing rapidly. Energy industry emissions fell by 46 % between 2005 and 2019, reducing the sector's share of total emissions by eight percentage points. Conversely, emissions from the transport sector increased by 40 % over the same period, doubling that sector's share of total emissions. Romania relies to a great extent on fossil fuels. Renewables, along with nuclear energy, but also gas as a primary energy source, are seen as essential to the transition process. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Romania was allowed to increase emissions until 2020 and must reduce these emissions by 2 % relative to 2005 by 2030. Romania achieved a 24.3 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 30.7 % share is focused mainly on wind, hydro, solar and fuels from biomass. Energy efficiency measures centre on heating supply and building envelopes along with industrial modernisation.

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