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Sixty years ago, on 5 February 1963, the European Court of Justice handed down the first in a series of landmark judgments that laid the constitutional foundations of the EU legal order. The seminal case of Van Gend & Loos offered the Court an opportunity to proclaim the doctrine of the direct effect of EU law within the legal orders of the Member States. In practice, this means that individuals may claim rights directly under EU law and enforce those rights before national courts. The Van Gend & ...

Highlights of the February I 2023 plenary session included debates with the Council and the European Commission on preparation of the 3 February EU-Ukraine Summit, and a vote on a resolution addressing Ukraine's EU accession perspective, calling for increased military, economic and humanitarian support for Ukraine, and stressing the importance of preparing a comprehensive recovery package for the country. Members also heard about preparations for the special European Council meeting on 9 and 10 February ...

Malta's National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) has a total value of €344.9 million. However, under the EU's Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), which is at the core of the EU's Next Generation EU instrument, Malta is expected to receive around €316.4 million, slightly below the value of the plan, and entirely in grants. On 30 June 2022, the European Commission recalculated the maximum grant amounts for all Member States; this resulted in a cut for Malta and a new total of €258.3 million ...

On 19 July 2022, the Commission put forward a proposal for a regulation establishing the European defence industry reinforcement through common procurement act (EDIRPA). On 1 December 2022, the Council adopted its general approach. On 18 January 2023, the rapporteurs from the AFET and ITRE joint committee published their draft report. EDIRPA is a short-term joint defence procurement instrument worth €500 million. It seeks to address the most urgent and critical defence capability gaps and to incentivise ...

The heavy sanctions imposed by the West on Russia over its war against Ukraine have had a considerable impact on the Russian digital sector. Russia has made efforts to circumvent the sanctions; counteracting these efforts requires consistent implementation and enforcement. Further coordination in this regard would increase the impact of existing sanctions and form a step towards ending the war.

Satellite communication is a strategic asset for governments and civil society alike. Complementary to terrestrial networks, it can contribute to seamless digital communication, even when such networks are absent or disrupted. Today, the EU does not have a dedicated infrastructure (including space and ground segments) to offer satellite communication services to governments, the economy or civil society. Several EU global partners and competitors are investing in parallel in such capabilities. On ...

On 23 November 2022, the European Parliament and the Council signed the directive amending the 2014 Radio Equipment Directive, with the aim of mandating a common charger for mobile phones and a number of other small portable devices. The amended directive, proposed by the European Commission on 23 September 2021, will require electronic devices to be equipped with a USB Type C receptacle and to incorporate the USB Power Delivery communication protocol. A separate initiative on the eco-design of external ...

Annual legislative programming in the EU involves the Commission, Parliament and Council. Although the right of legislative initiative remains monopolised by the Commission, the input of Parliament and the Council to EU legislative programming is increasingly acknowledged. Article 17(1) of the Treaty on European Union vests in the Commission competence with respect to annual programming. Thus, the central document for annual legislative and non-legislative policy programming is the Commission's annual ...

EU relations with Iran

Briefing 31-01-2023

Even though the EU and Iran have worked together over the past 4 years to save the nuclear agreement known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), relations between the two sides have reached a new low. The EU is concerned about the acceleration of Iran's nuclear programme in violation of the JCPOA and the country's reluctance to cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agency. In addition, the Iranian authorities' violent crackdown on and execution of peaceful protesters has ...

Offering an overview of the economic and budgetary situation in the European Union and beyond, and summarising the main economic indicators in the EU and euro area and their two-year trends, this study is the seventh in an annual series of 'Outlooks' produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). In seven chapters, the authors of the publication explain and analyse the annual EU budget and give an overview of its headings for 2023, all within the wider budgetary context of the EU's ...