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The common foreign and security policy (CFSP) contributes to the EU's objectives of preserving peace; strengthening international security; promoting international cooperation; and developing and consolidating democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The 2022 annual report on the implementation of the CFSP adopted by the Committee for Foreign Affairs (AFET) highlights the need for stronger, more ambitious, credible, strategic and unified EU action on the world ...

After examining the innovative character of the proposed tribunal, the paper analyses three main interconnected elements linked to the establishment and functioning of the tribunal: the legal basis for its creation; problems of immunity; and questions of enforcement and implementation of its decisions. In the end, taking into account legitimacy considerations which are of crucial importance in this case, the authors evoke two possibilities. A first option would be to ground the tribunal’s creation ...

Russia's unprovoked invasion of Ukraine triggered fears of an unprecedented global food crisis, adding to the devastating impact of the war. A swift response by the international community, including the United Nations–Türkiye-brokered Black Sea Grain Initiative, has been instrumental in unblocking Ukrainian food exports and stabilising the markets. Combined with the EU solidarity lanes launched in May 2022, more than 25 million tonnes have been exported. On 17 November, Russia confirmed, in extremis ...

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy first asked the United States (US) Congress and the White House to add Russia to the State Department's list of state sponsors of terrorism in April 2022. He has since extended the call to governments around the world. Both the US House of Representatives and the Senate have passed resolutions calling on the Secretary of State Antony Blinken to add Russia to the list, which he has so far refused to do. On 18 October 2022, the European Parliament held a debate ...

There are major concerns in the EU in relation to the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions associated with investor protection agreements. ISDS relies on a legal framework of arbitration that is separate from domestic courts. This analysis provides an overview of ISDS cases involving current EU Member States. The main finding is that, on average, nearly 16 % of claimed amounts translate into (known) compensation in cases involving current EU Member State respondents. Nearly a third ...

Outraged by Russia's illegal and unjustified invasion of Ukraine, European Union countries, in cooperation with other international partners, have imposed unprecedentedly tough sanctions on Russia, in a succession of packages since 23 February 2022, adding to those adopted in 2014 in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea. The EU has moved swiftly to approve an eighth package of EU sanctions, including the legal basis to cap Russian oil export prices, in retaliation for Russia's illegal annexation ...

Besides huge human losses and destruction, Russia's unprovoked invasion of Ukraine – the 'breadbasket of Europe' – has triggered energy and food supply challenges, exacerbating existing food systems vulnerabilities, already weakened under the effect of climate change and the COVID 19 pandemic. Fears of an unprecedented global food crisis similar to, or even worse than, the 2007 2008 crisis have mounted, magnifying ripple effects for security, migration and political instability. The supply shock ...

With war having returned to the European continent, measuring the level of threats to peace, security and democracy around the world – as the 'Normandy Index' does – is more important than ever. The annual Index was presented for the first time on the occasion of the Normandy Peace Forum in June 2019, as a result of a partnership between the European Parliament and the Region of Normandy. The Index has been designed and prepared by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), in conjunction ...

This study examines the implementation of the European Union (EU) Guidelines on Human Rights Defenders, which constitute the policy framework and provide the operational means for protecting human rights activists in third countries. The first part of the study, written internally, provides an institutional perspective of the implementation of the Guidelines. It assesses the development of the EU framework to support human rights defenders, including EU Member States' emergency measures, and evaluates ...

From 12 to 17 June 2022, the World Trade Organization (WTO) held an extended 12th ministerial conference (MC12), after it had been postponed twice owing to the pandemic. Although the outcome of the MC12 was the result of hard-won compromises, it covers a wide range of key agenda items and may be said to provide new momentum for the WTO, which critics have often portrayed as moribund. The WTO has proved its centrality for crafting multilateral solutions for global challenges, notably against the backdrop ...