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On 14 July 2021, the European Commission presented a package of proposals to make the EU's climate, energy, land use, transport and taxation policies fit for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 % by 2030, compared with 1990 levels – the 'fit for 55' package. The package includes a proposal to ensure a level playing field for sustainable air transport, also known as the ReFuelEU Aviation initiative. In the draft regulation, the Commission proposes obligations on fuel suppliers to ...

This study analyses the clarity and adaptability of EU environmental law and how these could be improved by means of regulatory options, by looking at four core EU environmental directives, in the field of water, air, nature and waste. Recommendations are made to improve the effectiveness of environmental law in European Union The research has been prepared at the request of the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs as asked by the Committee on ...

The impact assessment (IA) accompanying Commission's ReFuelEU Aviation proposal provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis, which is based on sound and recent data. The IA presents clearly described policy options and openly explains uncertainties in the analysis. However, contrary to the Better Regulation Guidelines, the IA does not assess the impacts on SMEs. In addition, the assessment would have benefited of further clarification in the comparison of options, the scale of the defined problems ...

Epidemiological studies of Covid-19 have, in most cases, provided inconclusive results to date regarding the role of air pollution in the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the geographical spread of the disease, both regionally and globally. The present review analysed just under 6 000 articles published up to 31 May 2021, looking at the role of pollution and air quality factors in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and in the geographical differences in Covid-19 propagation. A body of evidence ...

This paper gives an initial overview of the market structure in a revised EU ETS for the European aviation and maritime sectors. Key design options like the scheme’s geographical scope, the baseline year(s), cap and allocation of allowances, and – in the case of aviation – the relationship with CORSIA, can have impacts on the competitive situation of EU carriers and vessels. This is the first stage in the research project focusing on the implementation and socio-economic perspectives related to the ...

Alternative fuels can help to diminish the negative effects on the environment and health caused by both passenger and freight transport. Examples of alternative fuels include: electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, synthetic and paraffinic fuels, natural gas, including biomethane, in gaseous form (compressed natural gas, CNG) and liquefied form (liquefied natural gas, LNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). At European Union (EU) level, a directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure ...

On 9 December 2020, the European Commission put forward a sustainable and smart mobility strategy, outlining its planned steps to transform the European Union (EU) transport system to meet the ambition of the European Green Deal and the objectives of the EU's digital strategy. The strategy aims to rebuild the European transport sector, badly hit by the coronavirus pandemic, making it greener, smarter and more resilient, while leaving no one behind. This is to be achieved by strengthening the existing ...

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

As a party to the Paris Agreement, the European Union has committed to implementing climate mitigation policies to keep the average temperature rise to well below 2°C, while pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. Meeting the more ambitious goal of 1.5°C requires bringing the level of global net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by around 2050, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Following this scientific consensus, the European Commission presented in 2019 the European ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Czechia generates 3.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. With high levels of energy-intensive industry in the Czech economy, the country's emissions intensity is significantly ...