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This study – commissioned by the Policy Department C at the request of the Committee on Legal Affairs – analyses the notion of AI-technologies and the applicable legal framework for civil liability. It demonstrates how technology regulation should be technology-specific, and presents a Risk Management Approach, where the party who is best capable of controlling and managing a technology-related risk is held strictly liable, as a single entry point for litigation. It then applies such approach to ...

The institution of the Advocate General was introduced into the Treaty of Rome under the influence of the French delegation during the preparation of the Treaty. The French were staunchly opposed to allowing individual judges to present dissenting or concurring opinions, and instead proposed this be done by an Advocate General, a figure modelled on the French commissaire du gouvernement, who offers legal advice to the Conseil d'État on the cases being tried. Initially, there were two Advocates General ...

Cooperatives are autonomous associations of people aspiring to achieve their objectives through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. International organisations, such as the United Nations and the European Union (EU), value the role cooperatives play for society, the economy and (international) development. There are 3 million cooperatives worldwide; together, they provide employment for 280 million people, equating to 10 % of the world's employed population. The 300 largest ...

Europos teritorinio bendradarbiavimo grupė (ETBG) buvo įsteigta tam, kad būtų palengvintos valstybių narių, jų regionų ir vietos valdžios institucijų tarpvalstybinio, tarptautinio ir tarpregioninio bendradarbiavimo sąlygos. Europos teritorinio bendradarbiavimo grupė padeda šiems partneriams įgyvendinti bendrus projektus, keistis patirtimi ir pagerinti teritorijų planavimo koordinavimą.

This briefing provides an overview of the legal issues arising from the cross-border transfer of companys' seats within the EU as well as of the current legal landscape. It takes stock of the work carried out and the initiatives taken in this field by both the European Parliament and the Commission. It finally supplies a summary of the expertise recently submitted to both the European Parliament and the Commission as well as of the key findings thereof.

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. It describes the practices and approaches in all EU Member States as regards the prevention and eradication of statelessness. For that purpose the different national practices are assessed in light of the relevant international and European standards. Since proper mechanisms to identify stateless populations are lacking in a majority of Member ...

The European integration process has redefined the map of Europe, changing the fortunes of Europe's border regions from peripheral areas to poles of potential growth. Their development has been spurred by European territorial cooperation, with EGTCs playing a leading role in this EU success story. An EGTC enables entities from two or more Member States to work together under a common structure with legal personality. Its objective is to facilitate and promote cross-border, transnational and inter-regional ...

This paper forms part of a series of nine studies on the role of the European Union in international economic fora, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs of the European Parliament. It provides factual background information about the G20, the EU’s role and representation therein, its accountability as well as the coordination and impact thereof. The G20 has played a key role in measures taken to overcome the economic and financial crisis ...

This paper forms part of a series of nine studies on the role of the European Union in international economic fora, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs of the European Parliament. It provides factual background information about the OECD, the EU’s role and representation therein, its accountability as well as the coordination and impact thereof. Key conclusions are that, despite the particular importance the OECD gained during the financial ...

This paper forms part of a series of nine studies on the role of the European Union in International economic fora, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs. International Financial Reporting Standards define the rules for corporate accounting and are set by a private standard setter: the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The EU has no formal role in developing these standards, but de facto endorses them ex post. This raises questions ...