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Climate action in Lithuania: Latest state of play

24-06-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Lithuania finalised its NECP in December 2019. Lithuania generates 0.55 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Lithuania finalised its NECP in December 2019. Lithuania generates 0.55 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 period, with the exception of transport, agriculture and the 'other emissions' sectors. The transport and agriculture sectors account for 52 % of Lithuania's total emissions. Energy industry emissions have fallen by 60 % since 2005, while emissions in the 'other emissions' category, which includes services and buildings grew by 24 %. EU effort-sharing legislation allowed Lithuania to increase its emissions by 15 % up until 2020. Lithuania stayed well below its 2013-2020 allowances and expects to over-achieve on the 2030 target of 9 % reductions relative to 2005, potentially achieving 21 % reductions. Lithuania's renewable energy share was 25.5 % in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 45 % share focuses mainly on wind, solar and biofuels. Energy efficiency measures centre to a large extent on the building stock and transport sector with support schemes for industry and households.

Climate action in Croatia: Latest state of play

10-06-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021 to 2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Croatia's final NECP is from December 2019. Croatia generates 0.7 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The country's emissions intensity is significantly higher than the EU ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021 to 2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Croatia's final NECP is from December 2019. Croatia generates 0.7 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. The country's emissions intensity is significantly higher than the EU average, though it is on a steady downward trend. The transport sector accounted for over a quarter of Croatia's total emissions in 2019. The Croatian building stock is also responsible for a significant share of total emissions. Energy industry emissions fell by almost 40 % between 2005 and 2019, reducing the sector's share of total emissions by six percentage points. The Croatian economy is heavily reliant on energy imports. Diversifying supply and reducing demand is seen as key to the transition process. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Croatia was allowed to increase emissions until 2020 but must reduce these emissions by 7 % relative to 2005 by 2030. Croatia achieved a 28.5 % share of renewable energy sources in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 36.4 % share is focused mainly on photovoltaics, wind and biofuels. Measures to boost energy efficiency centre on building stock renovation and energy efficiency obligation schemes for energy suppliers. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

Climate action in Italy: Latest state of play

10-06-2021

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Italy's final NECP was sent in December 2019. Italy generates 11.4 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a faster pace than the EU average since 2005. Emissions decreased across all economic sectors in Italy over the ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Italy's final NECP was sent in December 2019. Italy generates 11.4 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a faster pace than the EU average since 2005. Emissions decreased across all economic sectors in Italy over the 2005-2019 period, with the agricultural sector showing the lowest reductions. The transport and 'other emissions' sectors, including buildings, account for almost half of Italy's total emissions. Energy industry emissions fell by 42 % between 2005 and 2019, leaving the sector in third place in terms of its share of total emissions. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Italy reduced its emissions by 13 % by 2020 relative to 2005, and the country expects to reach the 2030 target of 33 %. Italy achieved an 18 % share of renewable energy sources (RES) in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 30 % share is focused mainly on wind and solar power. Energy efficiency measures centre to a large extent on the building stock and transport sectors with support schemes for industry and households. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

Climate action in Luxembourg: Latest state of play

10-06-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Luxembourg's final NECP is from May 2020. Luxembourg generates 0.34 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 period ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Luxembourg's final NECP is from May 2020. Luxembourg generates 0.34 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. Most economic sectors showed emissions reductions in the 2005-2019 period, with the exception of agriculture and the 'other emissions' sectors. The transport sector and the 'other emissions' sector, which includes services and buildings, account for 77 % of Luxembourg's total emissions. Manufacturing and construction is the third largest sector in terms of emissions, accounting for 9 % of total emissions. Under EU effort-sharing legislation Luxembourg was supposed to reduce emissions by 20 % by 2020, and the 2030 obligation is 40 %. Luxembourg however expects to achieve a 55 % emissions reduction by 2030 in sectors outside the emissions trading system. Luxembourg reached a 7 % share of renewable energy sources (RES) in 2019 and expects in part to use cooperation mechanisms to reach the 2030 target of 25 % RES. Energy efficiency measures include both support and obligation schemes for industry, building renovations and transport electrification.

Harnessing the new momentum in transatlantic relations: Potential areas for common action during the Biden presidency

10-06-2021

The transatlantic relationship has been witnessing a significant injection of renewed enthusiasm and policy activity since Joe Biden became President of the United States in January 2021. This paper focuses on three important issues on the rapidly evolving transatlantic policy agenda, exploring their potential for generating, in effect, new 'common global goods' during the Biden presidency. First, it looks at pathways towards developing some kind of 'transatlantic green deal', taking climate action ...

The transatlantic relationship has been witnessing a significant injection of renewed enthusiasm and policy activity since Joe Biden became President of the United States in January 2021. This paper focuses on three important issues on the rapidly evolving transatlantic policy agenda, exploring their potential for generating, in effect, new 'common global goods' during the Biden presidency. First, it looks at pathways towards developing some kind of 'transatlantic green deal', taking climate action, trade and climate diplomacy in the round. Second, it analyses the comparative fabrics of US and European societies through the triple lens of violent extremism, the rule of law and technological disruption. Third, the prospects for 'crisis-proofing' the transatlantic space for the future are examined by looking at defence, health security and multilateralism. The paper also explores some potential avenues for closer transatlantic parliamentary cooperation, building on the already strong relationship between the European Parliament and the US Congress.

President Biden's climate summit

03-05-2021

On 22 and 23 April 2021, United States (US) President Joe Biden convened a virtual summit of 40 world leaders in a bid to galvanise global efforts to address the climate crisis. There he announced new targets of cutting US net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 'between 26 and 28 %' by 2025, and by 'between 50 and 52 %' by 2030, compared with 2005 levels. Biden also announced initiatives to help developing countries decarbonise, and encouraged other countries to match US ambition. The summit, one ...

On 22 and 23 April 2021, United States (US) President Joe Biden convened a virtual summit of 40 world leaders in a bid to galvanise global efforts to address the climate crisis. There he announced new targets of cutting US net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 'between 26 and 28 %' by 2025, and by 'between 50 and 52 %' by 2030, compared with 2005 levels. Biden also announced initiatives to help developing countries decarbonise, and encouraged other countries to match US ambition. The summit, one of a number of events leading up to the (delayed) 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow (United Kingdom) in November 2021, prompted several other countries to pledge new targets. The EU has welcomed the new US targets, but questions remain about their level of ambition and feasibility.

Climate action in Ireland: Latest state of play

29-04-2021

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Ireland submitted its NECP in mid-2019. Ireland generates 1.7 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. With a low share of energy-intensive industry, Ireland's carbon intensity ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Ireland submitted its NECP in mid-2019. Ireland generates 1.7 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. With a low share of energy-intensive industry, Ireland's carbon intensity, relative to GDP, is among the lowest in the Union, with a higher than average decrease. Currently, the agricultural sector accounts for the majority of Ireland's emissions at 31 %, a 4.3 % increase since 2005. Whereas energy industries, manufacturing and industrial processes traditionally account for the majority of countries' emissions, in Ireland they account for only 28 % combined and have together reduced their emissions by 33 % since 2005. Ireland exceeded its allocations under EU effort-sharing legislation for 2020 and also for 2019 (by 15 %). Ireland intends to use effort sharing flexibilities to reach the 2030 target of a 30 % reduction relative to 2005. Ireland achieved a 12 % share of renewable energy sources (RES) in 2019. The country's 2030 target of a 34 % share is focused mainly on wind, with some solar and biomass, with a renewable energy (RE) in electricity target of 70 % by 2030. Energy efficiency measures centre on building stock, smart metering and support measures for low carbon heating and energy retrofits for industry and households. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

EU hydrogen policy: Hydrogen as an energy carrier for a climate-neutral economy

12-04-2021

Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in a future climate-neutral economy, enabling emission-free transport, heating and industrial processes as well as inter-seasonal energy storage. Clean hydrogen produced with renewable electricity is a zero-emission energy carrier, but is not yet as cost-competitive as hydrogen produced from natural gas. A number of studies show that an EU energy system having a significant proportion of hydrogen and renewable gases would be more cost-effective than one relying ...

Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in a future climate-neutral economy, enabling emission-free transport, heating and industrial processes as well as inter-seasonal energy storage. Clean hydrogen produced with renewable electricity is a zero-emission energy carrier, but is not yet as cost-competitive as hydrogen produced from natural gas. A number of studies show that an EU energy system having a significant proportion of hydrogen and renewable gases would be more cost-effective than one relying on extensive electrification. Research and industrial innovation in hydrogen applications is an EU priority and receives substantial EU funding through the research framework programmes. Hydrogen projects are managed by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU), a public-private partnership supported by the European Commission. The EU hydrogen strategy, adopted in July 2020, aims to accelerate the development of clean hydrogen. The European Clean Hydrogen Alliance, established at the same time, is a forum bringing together industry, public authorities and civil society, to coordinate investment. Almost all EU Member States recognise the important role of hydrogen in their national energy and climate plans for the 2021-2030 period. About half have explicit hydrogen-related objectives, focussed primarily on transport and industry. The Council adopted conclusions on the EU hydrogen market in December 2020, with a focus on renewable hydrogen for decarbonisation, recovery and competitiveness. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) adopted an own-initiative report on the EU hydrogen strategy in March 2021. This is an update of a Briefing from February 2021.

EU climate action policy: Responding to the global emergency

18-03-2021

The European Green Deal aims to make the European Union climate-neutral by 2050, a target supported by all EU institutions. With this objective, the EU takes a leading role in addressing the global climate emergency. Achieving the climate-neutrality goal requires massive investment and an unprecedented transformation of all sectors of the economy. This study explains the physical basis of climate change and highlights its expected impacts on the EU. To give an overview of EU and international climate ...

The European Green Deal aims to make the European Union climate-neutral by 2050, a target supported by all EU institutions. With this objective, the EU takes a leading role in addressing the global climate emergency. Achieving the climate-neutrality goal requires massive investment and an unprecedented transformation of all sectors of the economy. This study explains the physical basis of climate change and highlights its expected impacts on the EU. To give an overview of EU and international climate policies, it outlines international climate agreements, EU climate action and the climate policies of major economies. It assesses the coherence of EU climate policy with other policy areas, and presents the financing of EU climate action through the EU budget and other instruments. To assess the implications of the climate neutrality objective, the study analysis the challenges and opportunities for the EU economy and its impacts on issues such as international relations, migration, trade, consumers and health . The final chapter addresses the issues facing European decision-makers and the outlook for European and global climate action in the context of the coronavirus pandemic.

Climate action in Czechia: Latest state of play

18-02-2021

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Czechia generates 3.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. With high levels of energy-intensive industry in the Czech economy, the country's emissions intensity is significantly ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Czechia generates 3.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. With high levels of energy-intensive industry in the Czech economy, the country's emissions intensity is significantly higher than the EU average, though it is on a downward trend. Energy industries, manufacturing and industrial processes account for 60 % of the Czechia's total emissions. Energy industry emissions have fallen by almost 20 % since 2005, reducing this sector's share of total emissions by 8 %. The Czech economy is heavily reliant on coal and nuclear energy is seen as an essential part of the transition process. Three regions are designated coal regions within the country's RESTART transition programme. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Czechia was allowed to increase emissions until 2020 and will seek to reduce these emissions by 14 % relative to 2005 by 2030. Czechia achieved a 15 % share of renewable energy sources in 2018. The country's 2030 target of a 22 % share are focused mainly on advanced biofuels, with some solar and wind. Energy efficiency measures centre on building stock, cogeneration and support measures for industry and households.

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