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FEMM-DEVE ad hoc Delegation to Nairobi - 12-14 November 2019

08-11-2019

This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, where 179 governments adopted a landmark Programme of Action which set out to empower women and girls for their sake, and for the benefit of their families, communities and nations. It also marks the 50th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). A At the ICPD, diverse views on human rights, population, sexual and reproductive health, gender equality ...

This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, where 179 governments adopted a landmark Programme of Action which set out to empower women and girls for their sake, and for the benefit of their families, communities and nations. It also marks the 50th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). A At the ICPD, diverse views on human rights, population, sexual and reproductive health, gender equality and sustainable development merged into a global consensus that placed individual dignity and human rights, including the right to plan one’s family, at the heart of development. A quarter of a century later, some progress has been achieved. There has been a 25 per cent increase in global contraceptive prevalence rate around the world. Adolescent births have declined, and the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen. But progress has been slow and uneven. Hundreds of millions of women around the world are still not using modern contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and global targets on reducing maternal deaths have not been met. For a more comprenhesive account of the progress made and the remaining challenges ahead, please consult the report Unfinished business - the pursuit of rights and choices for all.

The situation of indigenous children with disabilities

18-12-2017

Indigenous children with disabilities (ICwD) have received little attention in academic research and development policies. However, they face discrimination at many levels, based on ethnicity, age, ability and gender and this often leads to serious human rights violations. The lack of data, both on the prevalence of disabilities among indigenous children and young people and on specific violations of their human rights, is a serious constraint to any policy intended to respect, protect and promote ...

Indigenous children with disabilities (ICwD) have received little attention in academic research and development policies. However, they face discrimination at many levels, based on ethnicity, age, ability and gender and this often leads to serious human rights violations. The lack of data, both on the prevalence of disabilities among indigenous children and young people and on specific violations of their human rights, is a serious constraint to any policy intended to respect, protect and promote their human rights. This study seeks to identify these gaps, point to certain patterns and recommend ways of improving data collection and the situation of ICwD in future.

Išorės autorius

Isabel Inguanzo

The EU and Africa [What Think Tanks are thinking]

17-11-2017

The European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) will hold their fifth summit on 29-30 November 2017 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, with the aim of strengthening political and economic relations between the two continents. The focus of the meeting is on investing in youth, which is a priority for Africa, where 60 % of the population is under the age of 25. Other key topics include security, governance and democracy, human rights, migration and mobility, as well as investment and trade, skills development ...

The European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) will hold their fifth summit on 29-30 November 2017 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, with the aim of strengthening political and economic relations between the two continents. The focus of the meeting is on investing in youth, which is a priority for Africa, where 60 % of the population is under the age of 25. Other key topics include security, governance and democracy, human rights, migration and mobility, as well as investment and trade, skills development and job creation. Relations between Africa and the European Union are governed by partially overlapping policy frameworks. The most important ones are the EU-ACP Cotonou Agreement from 2000 and the Joint Africa-EU Strategy (JAES) agreed in 2007. Relations with Northern African countries are governed by the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED) launched in 2008 and the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP). This note offers links to a series of recent studies from major international think tanks and research institutes on EU-African relations and other issues related to the continent and its countries. More reports on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can be found in a previous edition of ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking’ published in October 2017.

Workshop: Facilitating external trade via border management

24-05-2017

The subject of trade facilitation and border management lies at the heart of EU trade policy, which seeks to take advantage of global value chains for the benefit of workers, consumers and businesses. This demands that goods may flow smoothly across borders without jeopardising EU values and standards. Trade facilitation principles help reduce the cost of cross-border trade in goods while safeguarding regulatory control objectives. Good border management practice is integral to trade facilitation ...

The subject of trade facilitation and border management lies at the heart of EU trade policy, which seeks to take advantage of global value chains for the benefit of workers, consumers and businesses. This demands that goods may flow smoothly across borders without jeopardising EU values and standards. Trade facilitation principles help reduce the cost of cross-border trade in goods while safeguarding regulatory control objectives. Good border management practice is integral to trade facilitation. In this study many ideas and examples about how borders management can be improved are shown. The key is coordination, cooperation and integration within the respective border agencies (intra-agency), between the many border agencies (inter-agency) and international (with colleagues across the border and EU trade partners). Despite considerable policy interest, research is still in its infancy. There is much demand for further enquiry. This paper discusses relevant principles, ideas and concepts and concludes with a list of recommendations. This includes the recommendation to develop suitable EU institutions in aid of trade facilitation as well as for research.

International Agreements in Progress: Towards a fisheries agreement with Kenya

17-05-2017

In July 2016, the Council adopted a decision authorising the Commission to begin negotiations, on behalf of the EU, for the conclusion of a fisheries agreement and protocol with Kenya. The negotiations are planned for the coming months. This would be the first ever EU fisheries agreement with Kenya, and would complement the regional network of agreements previously concluded in the western Indian Ocean (Seychelles, Madagascar, Mozambique, Comoros and Mauritius). The agreements allow the EU fleet ...

In July 2016, the Council adopted a decision authorising the Commission to begin negotiations, on behalf of the EU, for the conclusion of a fisheries agreement and protocol with Kenya. The negotiations are planned for the coming months. This would be the first ever EU fisheries agreement with Kenya, and would complement the regional network of agreements previously concluded in the western Indian Ocean (Seychelles, Madagascar, Mozambique, Comoros and Mauritius). The agreements allow the EU fleet to pursue tuna migration in the waters of the countries concerned, in exchange for a financial contribution covering access to their waters and support for their fisheries sector. The EU tuna fleet in the region includes vessels from Spain, France, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Italy. While some of the activities of these vessels take place in the framework of EU fisheries agreements, they also operate, to a significant extent, in the high seas. In addition, a number of them also have access to the waters of third countries with which the EU does not have fisheries agreements, on the basis of private agreements. This is the case of Kenya's waters, where EU vessels have long had access through annual authorisations provided by the Kenyan authorities.

Expanding the network of EU tuna fisheries agreements

08-07-2016

Since 1980, the EU has set up a network of bilateral fisheries agreements, providing fishing opportunities for the EU fleet in the waters of third countries. These agreements were concluded with countries in West Africa (1980-1998), in the western Indian Ocean (1984-1989), and in the western-central Pacific (2003-2007). Over the past few years, the European Commission has considered the possibility of expanding EU fleet access to new partner countries’ waters in the three regions. These fishing opportunities ...

Since 1980, the EU has set up a network of bilateral fisheries agreements, providing fishing opportunities for the EU fleet in the waters of third countries. These agreements were concluded with countries in West Africa (1980-1998), in the western Indian Ocean (1984-1989), and in the western-central Pacific (2003-2007). Over the past few years, the European Commission has considered the possibility of expanding EU fleet access to new partner countries’ waters in the three regions. These fishing opportunities would slot in the current network of tuna fisheries agreements, allowing EU vessels to pursue tuna migration within the waters of the new partner countries. Several procedures are now at different stages of progress, with the first of them – the agreement with Liberia – being adopted recently. To put these new opportunities into perspective, this briefing provides an overview of the EU tuna fisheries in the three regions, outlining the activities of the different types of EU tuna fishing vessels within and outside the framework of EU agreements, and the importance of their catches to the EU market. The potential agreements with Ghana and Sierra Leone (in West Africa); with Tanzania and Kenya (in the western Indian Ocean); and with the Cook Islands (in the western-central Pacific) are presented against this backdrop.

Peace agreement in South Sudan: Ambitious but hard to deliver

02-02-2016

In August 2015, under considerable international pressure, a peace agreement was signed in South Sudan: it aimed to end the violent civil war that had broken out two years earlier. The conflict was caused by a number of entangled factors that can be boiled down to a struggle for power and oil in a devastated country. Soon after gaining independence in 2011, the rivalry between the two main leaders, Salva Kiir and Riek Machar, that had been subdued, erupted again. In July 2013, President Kiir dismissed ...

In August 2015, under considerable international pressure, a peace agreement was signed in South Sudan: it aimed to end the violent civil war that had broken out two years earlier. The conflict was caused by a number of entangled factors that can be boiled down to a struggle for power and oil in a devastated country. Soon after gaining independence in 2011, the rivalry between the two main leaders, Salva Kiir and Riek Machar, that had been subdued, erupted again. In July 2013, President Kiir dismissed Vice-President Machar. The following December, ethnic conflict erupted within the army, tragically spreading to the civilian population and leading to a humanitarian catastrophe. The 2015 peace agreement is an important benchmark towards peace and reconciliation, as it addresses the main issues: establishment of an inclusive government; demilitarisation and reinsertion in civilian life of a large number of well-equipped militias; proper mechanisms for transitional justice and reparation; immediate measures to facilitate humanitarian access; and a consistent programme to redress the economy. Nevertheless, progress towards implementation of the peace deal is slow: key structures such as the transitional government and the 'hybrid' court have not yet been put in place. Building confidence between the current head of state and his main opponent is a challenging task for international mediators.

Kenya: Human rights situation

28-05-2015

Kenya's new Constitution, adopted in 2010, has enabled it to make progress on a number of fronts, especially in enhancing democratic governance and the role of the judiciary. Massive human rights violations, however, continue to be perpetrated by the Somalia-based terrorist organisation Al-Shabaab and to some extent also by the security forces operating against it.

Kenya's new Constitution, adopted in 2010, has enabled it to make progress on a number of fronts, especially in enhancing democratic governance and the role of the judiciary. Massive human rights violations, however, continue to be perpetrated by the Somalia-based terrorist organisation Al-Shabaab and to some extent also by the security forces operating against it.

Will Development in East Africa be Fossil-Fuelled?

02-07-2014

East Africa is at a critical turning point in its development trajectory. The discovery of substantial reserves of crude oil (in Kenya and Uganda) and natural gas (in Mozambique and Tanzania) may bring billions of dollars in new revenues to the region. East African countries are currently drafting and implementing legislation, policies and infrastructure in this sector and should begin reaping the benefits of commercial production in the next four to ten years. Yet the experience of other resource-rich ...

East Africa is at a critical turning point in its development trajectory. The discovery of substantial reserves of crude oil (in Kenya and Uganda) and natural gas (in Mozambique and Tanzania) may bring billions of dollars in new revenues to the region. East African countries are currently drafting and implementing legislation, policies and infrastructure in this sector and should begin reaping the benefits of commercial production in the next four to ten years. Yet the experience of other resource-rich countries demonstrates that, without the appropriate safeguards, East Africa may miss the opportunity to use these revenues to promote inclusive growth. Countries in the region risk exacerbating inequality while encouraging corruption and other social and environmental problems. This question has importance well beyond the region's borders. The global energy landscape is rapidly changing, and East Africa's reserves will spur international companies to compete for their share of the profits. As a major trade partner and donor, the European Union should use its position to ensure that extractive industries' activities are transparent and that countries strengthen their institutions and adopt pro-poor economic measures. Although the EU's role in the region is being eroded by emerging actors, the Union still enjoys important leverage, which could be used to help East Africa's transform its abundant natural resources into equitable growth and sustainable development.

The Potential of the Social Economy for Local Development in Africa: An Exploratory Report

12-05-2014

The Social Economy is increasingly attracting the interest of policy makers and scholars alike, thanks to its capacity to tackle key social and economic issues. While the importance of the Social Economy has been recognised by the EU, its role in supporting local development in other continents is still widely overlooked. This exploratory study provides an overview of the Social Economy in Africa and its potential for local development, focusing in particular on specific types of social economy ...

The Social Economy is increasingly attracting the interest of policy makers and scholars alike, thanks to its capacity to tackle key social and economic issues. While the importance of the Social Economy has been recognised by the EU, its role in supporting local development in other continents is still widely overlooked. This exploratory study provides an overview of the Social Economy in Africa and its potential for local development, focusing in particular on specific types of social economy organisations in four African countries: farmer-based-organisations in Ghana, agricultural co-operatives in Morocco, and a variety of community-based organisations in Ethiopia and Kenya. This study reveals that the Social Economy is a growing segment of the African economy, and that it substantially contributes to improving the wellbeing of local communities. However, some barriers to its development remain, including weak legal frameworks and inadequate policies; weak governance; and poorly developed managerial practices.

Išorės autorius

Carlo BORZAGA (EURICSE , University of Trento, Italy) and Giulia GALERA (EURICSE, Italy)

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