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Carbon-free steel production: Cost reduction options and usage of existing gas infrastructure

26-04-2021

The steel sector is one of the most challenging sectors to decarbonise and has recently received special attention owing to the potential use of low-carbon hydrogen (green and blue) to reduce its fuel combustion and process-related carbon emissions. This report addresses concerns that might arise while evaluating the potential and limitations of the future role of hydrogen in decarbonising the iron and steel industries. The report provides a comprehensive overview of current technical knowledge, ...

The steel sector is one of the most challenging sectors to decarbonise and has recently received special attention owing to the potential use of low-carbon hydrogen (green and blue) to reduce its fuel combustion and process-related carbon emissions. This report addresses concerns that might arise while evaluating the potential and limitations of the future role of hydrogen in decarbonising the iron and steel industries. The report provides a comprehensive overview of current technical knowledge, (pilot) projects and road maps at national and EU level. This information is supplemented by previously published indicative price projections for the various steel production routes and a long-term study, analysing the evolution of the global steel sector up until 2100.

LIFE programme for 2021-2027

21-04-2021

Launched in 1992, the LIFE programme is the only EU fund entirely dedicated to environmental and climate objectives. It supports the implementation of relevant EU legislation and the development of key policy priorities, by co-financing projects with European added value. In June 2018, the European Commission submitted a proposal for a new LIFE regulation as part of the 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) with a financial envelope of €5.45 billion in current prices. An early second-reading ...

Launched in 1992, the LIFE programme is the only EU fund entirely dedicated to environmental and climate objectives. It supports the implementation of relevant EU legislation and the development of key policy priorities, by co-financing projects with European added value. In June 2018, the European Commission submitted a proposal for a new LIFE regulation as part of the 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) with a financial envelope of €5.45 billion in current prices. An early second-reading agreement was reached with the Council in trilogue negotiations, which is now due to be voted by Parliament during the April 2021 session.

EU hydrogen policy: Hydrogen as an energy carrier for a climate-neutral economy

12-04-2021

Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in a future climate-neutral economy, enabling emission-free transport, heating and industrial processes as well as inter-seasonal energy storage. Clean hydrogen produced with renewable electricity is a zero-emission energy carrier, but is not yet as cost-competitive as hydrogen produced from natural gas. A number of studies show that an EU energy system having a significant proportion of hydrogen and renewable gases would be more cost-effective than one relying ...

Hydrogen is expected to play a key role in a future climate-neutral economy, enabling emission-free transport, heating and industrial processes as well as inter-seasonal energy storage. Clean hydrogen produced with renewable electricity is a zero-emission energy carrier, but is not yet as cost-competitive as hydrogen produced from natural gas. A number of studies show that an EU energy system having a significant proportion of hydrogen and renewable gases would be more cost-effective than one relying on extensive electrification. Research and industrial innovation in hydrogen applications is an EU priority and receives substantial EU funding through the research framework programmes. Hydrogen projects are managed by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU), a public-private partnership supported by the European Commission. The EU hydrogen strategy, adopted in July 2020, aims to accelerate the development of clean hydrogen. The European Clean Hydrogen Alliance, established at the same time, is a forum bringing together industry, public authorities and civil society, to coordinate investment. Almost all EU Member States recognise the important role of hydrogen in their national energy and climate plans for the 2021-2030 period. About half have explicit hydrogen-related objectives, focussed primarily on transport and industry. The Council adopted conclusions on the EU hydrogen market in December 2020, with a focus on renewable hydrogen for decarbonisation, recovery and competitiveness. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) adopted an own-initiative report on the EU hydrogen strategy in March 2021. This is an update of a Briefing from February 2021.

EU climate action policy: Responding to the global emergency

18-03-2021

The European Green Deal aims to make the European Union climate-neutral by 2050, a target supported by all EU institutions. With this objective, the EU takes a leading role in addressing the global climate emergency. Achieving the climate-neutrality goal requires massive investment and an unprecedented transformation of all sectors of the economy. This study explains the physical basis of climate change and highlights its expected impacts on the EU. To give an overview of EU and international climate ...

The European Green Deal aims to make the European Union climate-neutral by 2050, a target supported by all EU institutions. With this objective, the EU takes a leading role in addressing the global climate emergency. Achieving the climate-neutrality goal requires massive investment and an unprecedented transformation of all sectors of the economy. This study explains the physical basis of climate change and highlights its expected impacts on the EU. To give an overview of EU and international climate policies, it outlines international climate agreements, EU climate action and the climate policies of major economies. It assesses the coherence of EU climate policy with other policy areas, and presents the financing of EU climate action through the EU budget and other instruments. To assess the implications of the climate neutrality objective, the study analysis the challenges and opportunities for the EU economy and its impacts on issues such as international relations, migration, trade, consumers and health . The final chapter addresses the issues facing European decision-makers and the outlook for European and global climate action in the context of the coronavirus pandemic.

Living in the EU: Circular economy

16-03-2021

Circular economy is a production and consumption model that involves reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products to keep materials within the economy. It implies that waste becomes a resource, consequently minimising the actual amount of waste. The circular model is generally the antithesis of a traditional, linear economic model, which is based on a 'take-make-consume-throw away' pattern. This paper looks at the job creation potential and added value produced by ...

Circular economy is a production and consumption model that involves reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products to keep materials within the economy. It implies that waste becomes a resource, consequently minimising the actual amount of waste. The circular model is generally the antithesis of a traditional, linear economic model, which is based on a 'take-make-consume-throw away' pattern. This paper looks at the job creation potential and added value produced by the circular economy and illustrates the generation and treatment of waste in the EU.

Climate action in Czechia: Latest state of play

18-02-2021

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Czechia generates 3.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. With high levels of energy-intensive industry in the Czech economy, the country's emissions intensity is significantly ...

The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. Czechia generates 3.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced emissions at a slower pace than the EU average since 2005. With high levels of energy-intensive industry in the Czech economy, the country's emissions intensity is significantly higher than the EU average, though it is on a downward trend. Energy industries, manufacturing and industrial processes account for 60 % of the Czechia's total emissions. Energy industry emissions have fallen by almost 20 % since 2005, reducing this sector's share of total emissions by 8 %. The Czech economy is heavily reliant on coal and nuclear energy is seen as an essential part of the transition process. Three regions are designated coal regions within the country's RESTART transition programme. Under EU effort-sharing legislation, Czechia was allowed to increase emissions until 2020 and will seek to reduce these emissions by 14 % relative to 2005 by 2030. Czechia achieved a 15 % share of renewable energy sources in 2018. The country's 2030 target of a 22 % share are focused mainly on advanced biofuels, with some solar and wind. Energy efficiency measures centre on building stock, cogeneration and support measures for industry and households.

Climate action in Denmark: Latest state of play

18-02-2021

The EU's binding climate and energy targets for 2030 require Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment of each NECP. Denmark submitted its NECP in December 2019. The country accounts for 1.6 % of the EU's net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Between 2005 and 2018, it achieved a net emissions reduction of 23 %, performing better than the EU as a whole. In addition, the carbon intensity ...

The EU's binding climate and energy targets for 2030 require Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment of each NECP. Denmark submitted its NECP in December 2019. The country accounts for 1.6 % of the EU's net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Between 2005 and 2018, it achieved a net emissions reduction of 23 %, performing better than the EU as a whole. In addition, the carbon intensity of the Danish economy was below the EU average, and decreased more rapidly. In 2019, the country's emissions were concentrated in three sectors – transport, energy and agriculture – amounting to 69 % of total emissions. Developments in the energy sector were particularly notable and serve to explain two-thirds of the reduction in total emissions accomplished since 2005. Regarding emissions under the Effort-sharing Regulation, the emissions reduction target for Denmark has risen from 20 % for 2020 to 39 % by 2030 (compared to 2005). After reaching the 30 % share of renewables target well in advance of 2020, a 55 % target has been set for 2030. In 2019, the 2020 targets relating to energy efficiency had still not been met, and the level of ambition in those areas for 2030 has been revised downwards.

Climate action in Bulgaria: Latest state of play

18-02-2021

EU legislation requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period in order to contribute to the EU's binding climate and energy targets for 2030. Each individual final NECP has been assessed by the European Commission. The assessments were published in October 2020. Bulgaria submitted its final NECP in March 2020, taking into consideration the recommendations of the Commission on the draft report. In the1990s, Bulgaria experienced structural economic ...

EU legislation requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period in order to contribute to the EU's binding climate and energy targets for 2030. Each individual final NECP has been assessed by the European Commission. The assessments were published in October 2020. Bulgaria submitted its final NECP in March 2020, taking into consideration the recommendations of the Commission on the draft report. In the1990s, Bulgaria experienced structural economic changes relating to its transition to a market-based economy. In 1990, the country accounted for total emissions of 103 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent (MtCO2e) (excluding land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) and including international aviation). In 2005, its total GHG emissions decreased by 37 % compared with 1990, while in 2019 they were 44 % below the 1990 level. Bulgaria's NECP identifies several reasons for the reduction in total GHG emissions. These include: structural changes in industry, such as the decline in energy-intensive enterprises, an increased share of hydro and nuclear electricity, implementation of energy efficiency measures in the housing sector, and a shift from solid and liquid fuels to natural gas in energy consumption. However, according to the country report under the 2020 European Semester, Bulgaria is the most GHG-intensive economy in the European Union, and coal is still the main source of energy.

New circular economy action plan

04-02-2021

Moving to a circular economy is key for achieving EU climate action, nature protection and sustainability ambitions, and also delivering benefits for innovation, growth and jobs. During the February session, Parliament is expected to vote on an own-initiative report on the Commission's proposed plan for more circularity.

Moving to a circular economy is key for achieving EU climate action, nature protection and sustainability ambitions, and also delivering benefits for innovation, growth and jobs. During the February session, Parliament is expected to vote on an own-initiative report on the Commission's proposed plan for more circularity.

The potential of hydrogen for decarbonising steel production

14-12-2020

The iron and steel industry is a major contributor to the overall anthropogenic CO2 emissions worldwide, and therefore a significant driver of climate change. This paper explores the possible options for decarbonising iron and steel production processes, focusing on the use of renewable hydrogen as an alternative to fossil coal. It explains the basic physical and chemical differences between the two alternative processes, their cost structures and potential for further cost reductions, as well as ...

The iron and steel industry is a major contributor to the overall anthropogenic CO2 emissions worldwide, and therefore a significant driver of climate change. This paper explores the possible options for decarbonising iron and steel production processes, focusing on the use of renewable hydrogen as an alternative to fossil coal. It explains the basic physical and chemical differences between the two alternative processes, their cost structures and potential for further cost reductions, as well as the larger implications and longer-term consequences of switching to hydrogen in this key industrial sector.

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