Meklēt

Meklēšanas rezultāti

Tiek rādīts Nr. 10 no 21 rezultāti

This paper gives an initial overview of the market structure in a revised EU ETS for the European aviation and maritime sectors. Key design options like the scheme’s geographical scope, the baseline year(s), cap and allocation of allowances, and – in the case of aviation – the relationship with CORSIA, can have impacts on the competitive situation of EU carriers and vessels. This is the first stage in the research project focusing on the implementation and socio-economic perspectives related to the ...

Maritime shipping moves around 75 % of the EU’s external trade and 30 % of intra-EU transport of goods. As part of the wider international maritime community, it supports complex supply chains moving food, energy and raw materials, manufactured goods and components as well as medical supplies. To keep functioning during the coronavirus outbreak, maritime shipping, ports and inland navigation face a new set of challenges that require EU support and a coordinated approach from the world’s governments ...

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities ...

African maritime security is affected by a wide range of illegal activities. This paper focuses on maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, examining the legal aspects and societal implications of these forms of violence. Maritime piracy and armed robbery off Africa's coasts also pose a threat to the European Union's security and economy. Since 2008, the European Union has been implementing a maritime security strategy by means of separate regional strategies in the Gulf of Aden and in the Gulf ...

Not covered by the 2015 Paris Agreement, international shipping is now joining efforts to tackle climate change. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), a body of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), closed its 72nd session on 13 April 2018 with the adoption of an initial strategy to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping, setting clear emission reduction targets for the first time.

China’s New Maritime Silk Road policy poses geostrategic challenges and offers some opportunities for the US and its allies in Asia-Pacific. To offset China’s westward focus, the US seeks to create a global alliance strategy with the aim to maintain a balance of power in Eurasia, to avoid a strong Russia-China or China-EU partnership fostered on economic cooperation. For the EU, the ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) initiative by improving infrastructure may contribute to economic development in neighbouring ...

The 16+1 sub-regional cooperation format brings together China and 16 central and eastern European countries (CEECs), consisting of 11 EU Member States and five EU candidate countries. The format is controversial, given the concerns expressed about arrangements made under its umbrella being in conflict with EU law and about a perceived erosion of EU norms, values and unity. Nearly five years on from its creation, mutually satisfactory results still lag behind expectations.

Although emissions from international aviation and shipping were not included in the Paris Agreement on climate change, separate emission negotiations have been under way in these sectors. When the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) – a body of the International Maritime Organization – met in London in October 2016 for its 70th session, its agenda featured two items concerning air pollution from ships. While the MEPC took a clear step towards cutting sulphur emissions, progress on curbing ...

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be six times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C. Without considerable contributions of the shipping sector to global mitigation efforts this goal will be much harder to achieve. In 2011, the IMO adopted two efficiency measures to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) sets compulsory ...

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a United Nations specialised agency responsible for regulating international shipping. Since 1959, when it met for the first time, the IMO's overarching objectives have been the improvement of maritime safety and the prevention of marine pollution, to which maritime security was added later. The organisation's functioning reflects the diverging interests of its 171 member states acting in diverse capacities as port, coastal and flag states on the ...