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Initial coin offerings (ICOs) are a relatively new method of raising capital for early-stage ventures. They allow businesses to raise capital for their projects, by issuing digital tokens in exchange for crypto assets or fiat currencies. They constitute an alternative to more traditional sources of start-up funding such as venture capital (VC) and angel finance. ICOs can potentially offer advantages in comparison with traditional ways of raising capital. At the same time, their opacity and the general ...

Making it easier for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to access financing through public markets lies at the heart of the capital markets union – the plan to mobilise capital in Europe. Among the various reasons for going ahead with this union is the fact that existing requirements and listing costs in both regulated and multilateral trading venues continue to be disproportionate to the size and level of sophistication of SMEs. To further respond to this situation, the Commission has proposed ...

The increasing number of FinTech services provided by newcomer start-ups, traditional financial institutions and big tech companies can bring new competition challenges to the playing field. Some factors can result in anticompetitive behaviours, namely the network effects derived from the use of online platforms, the access to customer data, standardisation, interoperability and the use of algorithms. Combined with a service-by-service analysis, the study provides both, descriptive analysis and normative ...

Crowdfunding, an open call to the wider public for raising money online, can help ensure that both individuals and companies get access to finance, especially in the seed and early growth stages of their projects or business. Member States with a developed crowdfunding market have designed bespoke regulatory regimes that differ from each other with regard to the conditions under which platforms can operate, their scope of permitted activities and the licensing requirements applicable to them. As ...

This briefing provides an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above-mentioned proposal, published on 8 March 2018 and referred to Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON). The strengthening of the capital markets to boost long-term investment in the EU is a priority EU goal. In this context, the Commission's 2017 mid-term review of the capital markets union (CMU) action plan noted that access to ...

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) constitute 99 of every 100 businesses, and employ two out of three employees in Europe. Some of them are high-growth firms that generate a disproportionately high number of new jobs. However, SMEs often face obstacles specific to their smaller size that can hamper their growth potential. The main recent initiatives undertaken to help European SMEs grow fall within the flagship initiatives of the Commission: the European Fund for Strategic Investments, the ...

Monetary policy implications of financial innovation

Padziļināta analīze 15-05-2017

In this policy brief, we argue that the financial innovations triggered by the FinTech industry have the potential to affect the transmission of monetary policy as well as the informational content of important monetary indicators. While the overall effect of nonbank finance on monetary policy transmission is not yet clear, we argue that regulators and policy makers need to closely monitor the potential effects of FinTech on monetary policy transmission and to adequately adjust financial sector regulation ...

This paper describes recent technological developments and their possible impact on monetary policy and financial stability. We find that privately issued digital currencies could transform the present financial system substantially, if they gain considerable market shares, while there may be a benefit from currency competition in disciplining monetary policy. The introduction of a central bank digital currency would also challenge the present fractional reserve system at its core and could finally ...

Social enterprises combine social goals with entrepreneurial activity. They represent a business model focused on having a positive social or environmental impact rather than simply making profit for shareholders. Social enterprises make a valuable contribution to the economy and society, operating mainly in local communities and covering areas such as education, healthcare, social services, work integration and environmental protection. They are also an increasingly popular choice for outsourcing ...

Crowdfunding is a relatively 'young' form of financing – especially for SMEs and start-ups, but also for not-for-profit projects – that is developing fast in Europe. While researchers point out its benefits, among them the fact that project owners have greater control, and financial risk is spread among a larger number of people, they also note its drawbacks. The latter include a high cost of capital, occasional displays of a 'herd mentality', capable of depriving potentially worthier projects of ...