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Impact investing in the framework of business and human rights

31-07-2020

Impact investments are an emerging sustainable investment strategy and represent a small and medium enterprise-led approach to development. Impact investments are executed only when a positive financial return can be achieved alongside a measurable positive impact on an individual or societal level. Impact investors thus go beyond more established sustainable investment strategies such as exclusion or integration by explicitly aiming at impact, investing in business models that directly address social ...

Impact investments are an emerging sustainable investment strategy and represent a small and medium enterprise-led approach to development. Impact investments are executed only when a positive financial return can be achieved alongside a measurable positive impact on an individual or societal level. Impact investors thus go beyond more established sustainable investment strategies such as exclusion or integration by explicitly aiming at impact, investing in business models that directly address social issues. Most impact investment funds invest in areas such as healthcare, education or employment and thus improve the situation of the target group. At the same time, however, there is no explicit human rights perspective integrated into the investment process yet. Given the rather small scale of investments which is usually in the range of EUR 200 000 to EUR 5 million per transaction, unintended negative consequences can occur, if only to a very limited extent. This in-depth analysis discusses the impact investing industry in the context of sustainable finance and analyses central aspects of the concept such as financing instruments, the impact measurement process or the impact logic of the investors. The analysis also discusses the limitations impact investing faces such as commercial boundaries of business models, and illustrates modified concepts to mitigate these challenges which are summarised as social finance.

Ārējais autors

Dr. Barbara SCHECK, Dr. Wolfgang SPIESS-KNAFL.

Review of the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR): Updated rules on supervision of central counterparties (CCPs)

10-01-2020

The increasing importance of central counterparties (CCPs), and challenges such as the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU, call for a more comprehensive supervision of CCPs in EU and non-EU countries to secure financial market infrastructure and build confidence. In June 2017, the Commission proposed amendments to Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 (ESMA – European Securities and Markets Authority) and Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 (EMIR – European Market Infrastructure), to strengthen the regulatory ...

The increasing importance of central counterparties (CCPs), and challenges such as the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU, call for a more comprehensive supervision of CCPs in EU and non-EU countries to secure financial market infrastructure and build confidence. In June 2017, the Commission proposed amendments to Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010 (ESMA – European Securities and Markets Authority) and Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 (EMIR – European Market Infrastructure), to strengthen the regulatory framework. Under the proposals, EU CCPs would be supervised by national authorities in agreement with ESMA, and third-country CCPs subject to different requirements depending on whether (or not) they are systemically important. Following trilogue negotiations, Parliament voted on the resulting agreement at its plenary session of 18 April 2019. The final act was signed on 23 October 2019 and entered into force on 1 January 2020. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Framework for a pan-European personal pension product (PEPP)

26-08-2019

Europe's population is ageing, due to people living longer and having fewer children, putting pressure on pension systems and leading to reforms to make public pensions more sustainable – and often less generous – in future. To support retirement incomes, the European Commission's 2012 pensions white paper called for more opportunities for citizens to save in safe and good-value complementary pensions. The aim of the proposed framework for a pan-European personal pension product (PEPP) was to encourage ...

Europe's population is ageing, due to people living longer and having fewer children, putting pressure on pension systems and leading to reforms to make public pensions more sustainable – and often less generous – in future. To support retirement incomes, the European Commission's 2012 pensions white paper called for more opportunities for citizens to save in safe and good-value complementary pensions. The aim of the proposed framework for a pan-European personal pension product (PEPP) was to encourage the development of personal (voluntary, individually funded) pensions in Europe, to support retirement saving and strengthen the single market for capital by making more funds available for investment. Generally the proposal was considered a welcome extra option to support retirement savings and investment. However differing national pension systems and tax treatments were noted as challenges, although the Commission also issued an accompanying tax recommendation. Following trilogue negotiations, an agreement was reached on the legislative proposal. It was subsequently approved by the Parliament on 4 April 2019 and by the Council on 14 June 2019. The final act was signed on 20 June 2019. Third edition of a briefing originally drafted by David Eatock. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Pan-European pension product

21-03-2018

This European added value assessment, prepared for the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), analyses the added value of a pan-European pension product, in particular from the taxation viewpoint. It presents the issues that led to the PEPP proposal being made and provides a short overview of key stakeholders' opinions and existing studies. Moreover it considers the question of PEPP taxation and the impact of costs on final pensions. The analysis concludes by identifying ...

This European added value assessment, prepared for the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), analyses the added value of a pan-European pension product, in particular from the taxation viewpoint. It presents the issues that led to the PEPP proposal being made and provides a short overview of key stakeholders' opinions and existing studies. Moreover it considers the question of PEPP taxation and the impact of costs on final pensions. The analysis concludes by identifying the potential European added value that could be achieved by means of the PEPP proposal.

Pan-European Personal Pension Product

27-10-2017

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 29 June 2017 and referred to Parliament’s Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON). Pension systems across the EU vary considerably. While state-based public pensions constitute the most important part of retirement income, they may be complemented by occupational pensions and/or (national) personal pensions (private ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 29 June 2017 and referred to Parliament’s Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON). Pension systems across the EU vary considerably. While state-based public pensions constitute the most important part of retirement income, they may be complemented by occupational pensions and/or (national) personal pensions (private pension savings by households) (IA, pp. 4-5). The IA observes that although demographic change and limited public budgets increase the pressure on public pension systems and their adequacy, currently only 27 % of the EU population between 25 and 59 years old, representing 13 % of the total EU population, invest in personal pensions (IA, p. 11, Annex 6, pp. 97-98). Moreover, the 2015 Action Plan on a Capital Markets Union found the single market for personal pension products to be highly fragmented, due to divergent national and European rules. It concluded that this fragmentation prevented providers from developing innovative and competitive products and savers from receiving good quality, flexible and easily portable personal pensions (IA, p. 4, 9). The availability of personal pension products varies widely from Member State to Member State, and the existing offers differ considerably as regards both their accumulation (saving) and decumulation (pay-out) phases; this makes their portability difficult and leads to a generally low take-up. Against this backdrop, as announced in its mid-term review of the Capital Markets Union Action Plan, the Commission came forward in June 2017 with a legislative proposal to create a voluntary pan-European personal pension product (PEPP). The aim is to complement the existing national personal pensions and to encourage private capital investments in retirement savings on an EU scale. Given the relevance of tax incentives for personal pension products, the proposal is accompanied by a recommendation on tax treatment of such products by Member States, which is also covered by the IA under examination.

Ārējais autors

Kramer, Esther

European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR): Regulation of OTC derivatives in the European Union

13-06-2017

‘Derivatives’, ‘central counterparties’ and ‘trade repositories’. What are they and how are they inter-related? Why was regulation necessary, and how does the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) regulate? This paper places these elements in context and provides an introduction to the subject of over-the-counter derivatives, as well as the developments that led to the Commission's proposals for revision of the legislation in 2017.

‘Derivatives’, ‘central counterparties’ and ‘trade repositories’. What are they and how are they inter-related? Why was regulation necessary, and how does the European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) regulate? This paper places these elements in context and provides an introduction to the subject of over-the-counter derivatives, as well as the developments that led to the Commission's proposals for revision of the legislation in 2017.

CETA: Investment and the right to regulate

08-02-2017

Under international public law, states can be asked to compensate investors whenever regulatory measures become expropriation measures or violate standards of treatment, such as the 'fair and equitable treatment of investors' obligation. The EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) takes a relatively restrictive approach to these investor rights.

Under international public law, states can be asked to compensate investors whenever regulatory measures become expropriation measures or violate standards of treatment, such as the 'fair and equitable treatment of investors' obligation. The EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) takes a relatively restrictive approach to these investor rights.