6

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Publikācijas veids
Politikas joma
Jautājuma autors
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Datums

Energy as a tool of foreign policy of authoritarian states, in particular Russia

27-04-2018

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘ ...

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘near abroad’ and to make its geopolitical influence felt further afield, including in Europe. It uses gas supplies to punish and to reward, affecting both transit states and end-consumers. This study explores how supply disruptions, price discounts or hikes, and alternative transit routes such as Nord Stream 2 and Turkish Stream, are used by Russia to further its foreign policy ambitions, feeding suspicions about its geopolitical motives. The lack of transparency about Russia’s energy policy decisions contributes to this. In response, the EU is building an Energy Union based around the Third Energy Package, a more integrated European market and diversified supplies. By investing in new supplies, such as LNG, and completing a liberalised energy market, the EU will be better able to withstand such energy coercion and develop a more effective EU foreign policy.

Ārējais autors

Rem Korteweg

Humanitarian policy of the Gulf States

17-05-2016

At a times of rising global terrorist threats and humanitarian crises affecting the region, the prosperous oil-producing monarchies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) – Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – have come under sustained criticism for their policy towards asylum-seekers, their support to Syrian rebels, including jihadists, and their alleged laxity towards private financing of terrorism. Although the huge increase in their humanitarian spending ...

At a times of rising global terrorist threats and humanitarian crises affecting the region, the prosperous oil-producing monarchies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) – Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – have come under sustained criticism for their policy towards asylum-seekers, their support to Syrian rebels, including jihadists, and their alleged laxity towards private financing of terrorism. Although the huge increase in their humanitarian spending has been interpreted by a number of commentators as a means to counter those criticisms, it seems also to be part of a longer-term foreign policy strategy.

Countering extremism in Arab countries

11-05-2016

Terrorist attacks in Sousse, Tunis, Beirut and the Sinai clearly show that hardly any country in the Arab world is immune to the threat posed by jihadi terrorism. Despite their different political agendas, countries in the region have been taking unprecedented steps to identify local factors in radicalisation and recruitment to violent extremism, and to prevent and counter these processes.

Terrorist attacks in Sousse, Tunis, Beirut and the Sinai clearly show that hardly any country in the Arab world is immune to the threat posed by jihadi terrorism. Despite their different political agendas, countries in the region have been taking unprecedented steps to identify local factors in radicalisation and recruitment to violent extremism, and to prevent and counter these processes.

Low oil prices and the fight against ISIL/Da’esh

09-03-2016

The price of oil has fallen significantly since June 2014, from a peak of US$115 per barrel (bl) then to US$26 per barrel in January 2016, although it has somewhat recovered recently. This can partly be explained by weaker demand, robust supply growth and the expanding coverage of mandatory energy effciency provisions worldwide. These changes come at a time of major turmoil in parts of the Middle East. Iraq – with the world’s fifth largest oil reserves – is engaged in the fight against ISIL/Da’esh ...

The price of oil has fallen significantly since June 2014, from a peak of US$115 per barrel (bl) then to US$26 per barrel in January 2016, although it has somewhat recovered recently. This can partly be explained by weaker demand, robust supply growth and the expanding coverage of mandatory energy effciency provisions worldwide. These changes come at a time of major turmoil in parts of the Middle East. Iraq – with the world’s fifth largest oil reserves – is engaged in the fight against ISIL/Da’esh which controls some of Iraq’s oil fields. Syria – with a national budget largely dependent on oil revenues – is torn apart by civil war. Iran, on the other hand, is returning to international oil markets as a result of the gradual removal of sanctions against it, in line with the agreement on its nuclear programme.

The Situation of Women in the Gulf States

17-10-2014

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this study examines the economic, political and socio-cultural changes which have affected the situation of women in the Gulf region over the last decades. Through an overall analysis and individual country reports, it notably sheds light on similarities and differences concerning women’s emancipation in Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Gender discrimination is discussed both in law and in practice, focusing on women ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this study examines the economic, political and socio-cultural changes which have affected the situation of women in the Gulf region over the last decades. Through an overall analysis and individual country reports, it notably sheds light on similarities and differences concerning women’s emancipation in Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Gender discrimination is discussed both in law and in practice, focusing on women’s political and economic empowerment, education, migration, family and health.

Ārējais autors

May Seikaly (Wayne State University), Rahil Roodsaz and Corine van Egten (Atria Institute on Gender Equality and Women’s History) Country experts: Mona Abbass Fadhel (Bahrain), Philippa Winkler (Iran and Iraq), Wanda Krause (Kuwait and Qatar), Khalid M. Al-Azri (Oman), Sherifa Zuhur (Saudi Arabia) and Shahida El-Baz (United Arab Emirates)

Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood experience International response and regional implications

02-12-2013

Accused of taking an authori­tarian turn and being unable to sort Egypt's economic problems, Mohammed Morsi, the democrat­ically elected Egyptian president was ousted earlier this year. The ensuing crackdown on his party, the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), has pushed the organisation to return to the underground organisation with which it had worked for decades. The implications are region-wide, not only because of Egypt's strategic position in the Middle East but also because of the impact the Egyptian ...

Accused of taking an authori­tarian turn and being unable to sort Egypt's economic problems, Mohammed Morsi, the democrat­ically elected Egyptian president was ousted earlier this year. The ensuing crackdown on his party, the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), has pushed the organisation to return to the underground organisation with which it had worked for decades. The implications are region-wide, not only because of Egypt's strategic position in the Middle East but also because of the impact the Egyptian episode could have for other MB-linked groups which are wide­spread in the region.

Gaidāmie notikumi

20-01-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable with the World Bank: Where next for the global economy
Cits pasākums -
EPRS
25-01-2021
Public Hearing on "Gender aspects of precarious work"
Uzklausīšana -
FEMM
27-01-2021
Public hearing on AI and Green Deal
Uzklausīšana -
AIDA

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