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Addressing the dissemination of terrorist content online

15-07-2021

Dissemination of terrorist content is one of the most widespread and most dangerous forms of misuse of online services in the field of internal security. In line with the 2015 European agenda on security, and taking into account the impact of this propaganda on the radicalisation, recruitment and training of terrorists, the European Commission launched a voluntary system for tackling terrorism online, based on guidelines and recommendations. However, given the limitations of self-regulation, in September ...

Dissemination of terrorist content is one of the most widespread and most dangerous forms of misuse of online services in the field of internal security. In line with the 2015 European agenda on security, and taking into account the impact of this propaganda on the radicalisation, recruitment and training of terrorists, the European Commission launched a voluntary system for tackling terrorism online, based on guidelines and recommendations. However, given the limitations of self-regulation, in September 2018 the Commission proposed a regulation on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online through the removal of such content within one hour of being posted. While the Council rapidly reached a position on the proposal, the European Parliament adopted its first-reading position in April 2019. Following the European elections, and the appointment of a new rapporteur, interinstitutional trilogue negotiations on the proposal began in autumn 2019. The trilogue meetings were delayed several times, because of the coronavirus pandemic among other reasons. After a new series of terrorist attacks hit Europe in autumn 2020, Parliament and Council reached political agreement on 10 December 2020. The most contentious issues related to the cross-border effect of withdrawal orders and to the use of automated filters to detect terrorist content online. After the Council adopted the text on 16 March 2021, Parliament adopted it in plenary on 28 April. The Regulation entered into force on 6 June and will apply as of 7 June 2022. Third edition of a briefing originally drafted by François Théron. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Digital cultural diversity

22-04-2021

Digital technologies have revolutionised every aspect of our lives, and culture is no exception. They have impacted on the value chains of all the cultural and creative industries not only as regards the creative process and its execution but also as regards the making of a work or product of art and its promotion, distribution, marketing and sale. Cultural heritage can be digitised and, in the case of analogue film, it needs to be digitised to be made accessible. Some production processes are solely ...

Digital technologies have revolutionised every aspect of our lives, and culture is no exception. They have impacted on the value chains of all the cultural and creative industries not only as regards the creative process and its execution but also as regards the making of a work or product of art and its promotion, distribution, marketing and sale. Cultural heritage can be digitised and, in the case of analogue film, it needs to be digitised to be made accessible. Some production processes are solely digital and are born digital. Technology has a huge potential to make culture accessible to all, by democratising both consumption and involvement in cultural creation. However, technology depends on equipment and infrastructure, which does not necessarily facilitate the diversity of content available and discoverable online. Other factors, such as language, skills or geographical location can also make it harder to discover online cultural content reflecting cultural diversity. Conscious of such barriers, UNESCO has issued guidelines on the implementation of the Convention on Cultural Diversity in Digital Environments. The EU is part of this convention and has tools and funds to promote and protect cultural diversity, in line with its obligation stemming from the Treaties, not just on its own territory.

Addressing the dissemination of terrorist content online

21-04-2021

The European Commission proposed, in 2018, a new regulation aimed at countering the security threat represented by the spread of terrorist content online. The regulation would require service providers to remove online content posted with the objective to radicalise, recruit or incite to violence, within one hour of receiving a removal order from the competent authorities. The European Parliament is due to vote at second reading during its April plenary session on the agreed text reached in trilogue ...

The European Commission proposed, in 2018, a new regulation aimed at countering the security threat represented by the spread of terrorist content online. The regulation would require service providers to remove online content posted with the objective to radicalise, recruit or incite to violence, within one hour of receiving a removal order from the competent authorities. The European Parliament is due to vote at second reading during its April plenary session on the agreed text reached in trilogue negotiations.

Electronic evidence in criminal matters

22-03-2021

In December 2020, the European Parliament's Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee adopted its reports on a pair of 2018 legislative proposals on electronic evidence in criminal matters, and mandates to start trilogue negotiations on the two proposals. The proposed new rules would allow law enforcement and judicial authorities to directly request (or temporarily secure) electronic data needed for investigating and prosecuting crime from electronic service providers operating in the EU ...

In December 2020, the European Parliament's Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee adopted its reports on a pair of 2018 legislative proposals on electronic evidence in criminal matters, and mandates to start trilogue negotiations on the two proposals. The proposed new rules would allow law enforcement and judicial authorities to directly request (or temporarily secure) electronic data needed for investigating and prosecuting crime from electronic service providers operating in the EU (wherever the data is stored), and would impose an obligation on these service providers to appoint a legal representative for the purpose of gathering evidence and answering competent authorities' requests. This two-part legislative initiative is the result of an almost two-year process of reflection on how to better adapt criminal justice to the challenges of the digital age, with a specific focus on jurisdiction in cyberspace and access to electronic evidence. The initiative is part of a broader array of international efforts to improve the legal framework and address persistent legal uncertainty that affects law enforcement and private parties alike. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Combating Gender based Violence: Cyber Violence

17-03-2021

With the rise of new technology and social media gender-based cyber violence is a constantly growing threat with impacts at individual, social and economic levels, on women and girls and on society as generally. Action taken so far has been inadequate, and the cross-border nature of gender-based cyber violence has yet to be properly addressed either. This European added value assessment (EAVA) complements the European Parliament’s own initiative legislative report on Combating Gender based Violence ...

With the rise of new technology and social media gender-based cyber violence is a constantly growing threat with impacts at individual, social and economic levels, on women and girls and on society as generally. Action taken so far has been inadequate, and the cross-border nature of gender-based cyber violence has yet to be properly addressed either. This European added value assessment (EAVA) complements the European Parliament’s own initiative legislative report on Combating Gender based Violence: Cyber Violence (2020/2035(INL)). The costs to individuals and society are substantial and shown to be in the order of €49.0 to €89.3 billion. A combination of legal and non-legal policy options would generate the greatest European added value, promote the fundamental rights of victims, reduce costs imposed on individuals and society, and support law enforcement and people working with victims.

Online platforms: Economic and societal effects

10-03-2021

Online platforms such as Google, Amazon, and Facebook play an increasingly central role in the economy and society. They operate as digital intermediaries across interconnected sectors and markets subject to network effects. These firms have grown to an unprecedented scale, propelled by data-driven business models. Online platforms have a massive impact on individual users and businesses, and are recasting the relationships between customers, advertisers, workers, and employers. This has triggered ...

Online platforms such as Google, Amazon, and Facebook play an increasingly central role in the economy and society. They operate as digital intermediaries across interconnected sectors and markets subject to network effects. These firms have grown to an unprecedented scale, propelled by data-driven business models. Online platforms have a massive impact on individual users and businesses, and are recasting the relationships between customers, advertisers, workers, and employers. This has triggered a public debate on online platforms’ economic dominance and patterns of pervasive data collection. The report provides evidence of positive impact, and documents a set of important issues not fully addressed by existing European regulation and enforcement. The consensus is that there is a need to strengthen the current law enforcement and regulation of the platform economy. This report welcomes the proposed Digital Markets and Digital Services Acts, and offers a series of policy options for competition and innovation, working conditions and labour markets, consumer and societal risks, and environmental sustainability.

Ārējais autors

DG, EPRS_This study has been written by Professor Annabelle Gawer, Surrey Business School, University of Surrey (main author), Dr Nick Srnicek, King's College London, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Digital services act

03-03-2021

The rules governing the provision of digital services in the EU have remained largely unchanged since the adoption of the e-Commerce Directive in 2000, while digital technologies and business models continue to evolve rapidly and new societal challenges are emerging, such as the spread of counterfeit goods, hate speech and disinformation online. Against this backdrop, in December 2020, the European Commission tabled a new legislative proposal on a digital services act to amend the e-Commerce Directive ...

The rules governing the provision of digital services in the EU have remained largely unchanged since the adoption of the e-Commerce Directive in 2000, while digital technologies and business models continue to evolve rapidly and new societal challenges are emerging, such as the spread of counterfeit goods, hate speech and disinformation online. Against this backdrop, in December 2020, the European Commission tabled a new legislative proposal on a digital services act to amend the e-Commerce Directive and set higher standards of transparency and accountability to govern the way platform service providers moderate content, on advertising and on algorithmic processes. Parliament has already voiced strong support for revision of the EU rules applicable to online actors. EU lawmakers will now assess whether the Commission's proposal is an appropriate response to the challenges identified and will work towards defining Parliament's own position on the proposal, which is the first step in the EU's interinstitutional legislative process.

Challenges facing sports event organisers in the digital environment

17-12-2020

Piracy of online broadcast of sports events is a problem in the EU. No action at EU level in this field would lead to additional burdens on economic operators and would hamper completion of the Digital Single Market. This European Added Value Assessment (EAVA) looks at the existing EU legislation and checks if it provides sports events organizers and their licensees with an adequate level of protection against this risk. It also presents potential EU level action that could help solve the problem ...

Piracy of online broadcast of sports events is a problem in the EU. No action at EU level in this field would lead to additional burdens on economic operators and would hamper completion of the Digital Single Market. This European Added Value Assessment (EAVA) looks at the existing EU legislation and checks if it provides sports events organizers and their licensees with an adequate level of protection against this risk. It also presents potential EU level action that could help solve the problem and estimates economic benefits of addressing the problem.

Regulating digital gatekeepers: Background on the future digital markets act

08-12-2020

The EU has unveiled an ambitious plan to regulate online platforms, and the European Commission is proposing to introduce ex ante regulation to ensure that markets characterised by large platforms acting as digital gatekeepers remain fair and competitive for innovators, businesses, and new market entrants. The introduction of an ex ante regulatory framework that could limit online platforms' commercial freedom and give wide-ranging enforcement powers to regulators would be a far-reaching step. Against ...

The EU has unveiled an ambitious plan to regulate online platforms, and the European Commission is proposing to introduce ex ante regulation to ensure that markets characterised by large platforms acting as digital gatekeepers remain fair and competitive for innovators, businesses, and new market entrants. The introduction of an ex ante regulatory framework that could limit online platforms' commercial freedom and give wide-ranging enforcement powers to regulators would be a far-reaching step. Against this background, this briefing explains the rationale for regulating digital gatekeepers in the EU and provides an overview of the key policy questions currently under discussion. Recent reports and studies have shown how a few large platforms have the ability to apply a range of practices that raise significant competition issues. The limitation of competition law – essentially applied ex-post after the anti-competitive practices have been implemented – has sparked a debate on whether EU competition rules are still fit for purpose and whether such platforms should not instead be regulated ex ante so as to provide upfront clarity about what behaviour towards users and competitors is acceptable. In this respect, the policy discussion focuses on a number of issues, in particular, how to identify online gatekeepers that should be subject to ex ante regulation, what conduct should be outlawed for those gatekeepers, what obligations should be placed on them (such as data portability and interoperability), and how such innovative regulations should be enforced. Finally, the briefing highlights the initial views of a number of stakeholders.

Digital Services Act - Pre-legislative synthesis of national, regional and local positions on the European Commission's initiative

26-11-2020

This briefing forms part of an EPRS series offering syntheses of the pre-legislative state of play and consultation on key European Commission priorities during the current five-year term. It summarises the state of affairs in the relevant policy field, examines how existing policy is working on the ground, and, where possible, identifies best practice and ideas for the future on the part of governmental organisations at all levels of European system of multilevel governance. EPRS analysis of the ...

This briefing forms part of an EPRS series offering syntheses of the pre-legislative state of play and consultation on key European Commission priorities during the current five-year term. It summarises the state of affairs in the relevant policy field, examines how existing policy is working on the ground, and, where possible, identifies best practice and ideas for the future on the part of governmental organisations at all levels of European system of multilevel governance. EPRS analysis of the positions of partner organisations at European, national, regional and local levels suggests that they would like the following main considerations to be reflected in discussion of the forthcoming Digital Services Act (DSA): Modernisation of EU legislation on platforms Regional and national stakeholders stress that it is high time to update and harmonise EU rules on online platforms, pointing out that the DSA should address the legal uncertainty and administrative burden stemming from the fragmentation of Union legislation. Broader scope for the DSA Local actors, especially cities, stress that the legislative proposal should tackle issues arising from the offering of online services that do not comply with local regulations, for instance on health, safety, housing taxation (e.g. short-term holiday rental) and urban mobility. Stronger enforcement and cooperation Several cities call on the Commission to clarify exemptions to the principle of origin and to include under EU law explicit provisions to supply the country of destination's competent authorities with all relevant information and data necessary to enforce applicable regulations. Regulation of gatekeepers Governmental organisations at regional and national levels share the view that there is a need to impose special rules on online gatekeepers. They therefore strongly support the introduction of ex-ante obligations on platforms in a gatekeeper position.

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