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Corporate Tax Practices and Aggressive Tax Planning in the EU

15-12-2015

This paper forms part of a series of analytical pieces on the absence of EU-coordination regarding aggressive tax planning and its effects, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee of the European Parliament. It provides some background to the political debate and to the efforts which are currently underway to reform the tax system both at an international level, through the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project led by the OECD and the G20, as well as at an EU ...

This paper forms part of a series of analytical pieces on the absence of EU-coordination regarding aggressive tax planning and its effects, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee of the European Parliament. It provides some background to the political debate and to the efforts which are currently underway to reform the tax system both at an international level, through the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project led by the OECD and the G20, as well as at an EU level. It describes the basic structure and the fundamental flaws of the current international tax system. A number of techniques and mechanisms have been and are used by modern multinational enterprises (MNEs) for aggressive tax planning purposes. It also illustrates that these structures exploit the interaction of the tax systems of different states. The paper concludes with a description of the key features and role of the Platform for Tax Good Governance, Aggressive Tax Planning and Double Taxation.

Awtur estern

John VELLA (Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation, Saïd Business School, United Kingdom)

‘Tax rulings’ in the EU Member States

15-12-2015

This paper forms part of a series of analytical pieces on the absence of EU-coordination regarding aggressive tax planning and its effects, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee of the European Parliament. It deals with the question what advance tax rulings, advance pricing agreements and other tax arrangements currently are like and how they are meant to develop. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the reasons of their existence and to know the legal and policy ...

This paper forms part of a series of analytical pieces on the absence of EU-coordination regarding aggressive tax planning and its effects, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee of the European Parliament. It deals with the question what advance tax rulings, advance pricing agreements and other tax arrangements currently are like and how they are meant to develop. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the reasons of their existence and to know the legal and policy limits that should be taken into account on OECD, EU and national levels. The paper gives an overview of the features of tax rulings in general and of the tax rulings practices in the 28 Member States in concrete terms.

Financing Public Expenditure: Some Key Figures at EU and National Levels

15-01-2015

The Member States' structure of revenue is stable over time and their sources of revenue are diversified. Moreover, the size of the Member States' budget is generally increasing. Conversely, the financing structure of the European Union has changed over time and the sources of revenue are not diversified. The EU budget size is levelling off. Very small in size compared to national budgets, the EU budget is an investment budget with a strong leverage effect, i.e. one euro spent from the EU budget ...

The Member States' structure of revenue is stable over time and their sources of revenue are diversified. Moreover, the size of the Member States' budget is generally increasing. Conversely, the financing structure of the European Union has changed over time and the sources of revenue are not diversified. The EU budget size is levelling off. Very small in size compared to national budgets, the EU budget is an investment budget with a strong leverage effect, i.e. one euro spent from the EU budget generates more than one euro in investment. Today, around 83% of the total EU revenue comes from two resources which are, in fact, financial transfers from national budgets (GNI- and VAT-based resources) and cannot be seen as true own resources for the EU as defined in the Treaty. In particular, the VAT-based resource, contrary to its name, is not levied on the final consumer but collected on a Member State statistically computed VAT base. In addition, specific arrangements granted to some Member States to reduce their contributions increase the inconsistency among Member States and the complexity of the system. Therefore, the current system to finance the EU is difficult to understand for most EU citizens.

Financing of the EU budget: The own resources system

20-02-2013

The system of "own resources" ensures the financing of the EU's policies. Total revenues amounted to €130 billion in 2011. Successive reforms have determined its current configuration, which relies on three key streams of revenue: traditional own resources (mainly customs duties); a resource based on value added tax (VAT); and a resource related to gross national income (GNI). At present, the system provides sufficient resources to cover planned expenditure, but is often criticised for its complexity ...

The system of "own resources" ensures the financing of the EU's policies. Total revenues amounted to €130 billion in 2011. Successive reforms have determined its current configuration, which relies on three key streams of revenue: traditional own resources (mainly customs duties); a resource based on value added tax (VAT); and a resource related to gross national income (GNI). At present, the system provides sufficient resources to cover planned expenditure, but is often criticised for its complexity and opacity. Modification of the own resources system requires unanimity in the Council and ratification by each Member State (MS). For the Own Resources Decision, the European Parliament (EP) is only consulted.

Crisis Management, Burden Sharing and Solidarity Mechanisms in the EU: A follow-up study to Financial Supervision and Crisis Management in the EU

17-06-2010

The financial crisis that began in 2007 as a liquidity crisis for banks has transformed itself into a sovereign debt crisis that threatens the viability of the eurozone and the foundations of the European Union. In this study, we analyse some of the recent regulatory initiatives in response to the crisis and their implications for the EU financial system and economy. Although EU policymakers are adopting important institutional reforms to create a more robust macro-prudential supervisory framework ...

The financial crisis that began in 2007 as a liquidity crisis for banks has transformed itself into a sovereign debt crisis that threatens the viability of the eurozone and the foundations of the European Union. In this study, we analyse some of the recent regulatory initiatives in response to the crisis and their implications for the EU financial system and economy. Although EU policymakers are adopting important institutional reforms to create a more robust macro-prudential supervisory framework, serious gaps and weakness remain in EU regulation, crisis management, and burden sharing. We conclude that in liberalised international financial markets it will always be very difficult for regulators to control systemic risks and that alternative regulatory approaches should be considered.

Awtur estern

Professor Dr. Kern Alexander, Professor Lord Eatwell, Professor Avinash Persaud Mr. Robert Reoch - Centre for Financial Analysis and Policy, University of Cambridge

Taxation in Europe: Recent Developments

01-03-2003

This Study updates three earlier papers in the Economic Affairs Series:  Tax Competition in the European Union (ECON 105, October 1998);  Tax Co-ordination in the European Union (ECON 125, January 2001); and  Tax Co-ordination in the EU: the latest position (ECON 128, March 2002). The text does not repeat material already covered in the previous publications, but analyses recent developments in a number of taxation fields: corporate taxation, the taxation of energy, the continuing negotiations ...

This Study updates three earlier papers in the Economic Affairs Series:  Tax Competition in the European Union (ECON 105, October 1998);  Tax Co-ordination in the European Union (ECON 125, January 2001); and  Tax Co-ordination in the EU: the latest position (ECON 128, March 2002). The text does not repeat material already covered in the previous publications, but analyses recent developments in a number of taxation fields: corporate taxation, the taxation of energy, the continuing negotiations on the 'Monti Package', the taxation of motor vehicles, possible new proposals on the taxation of wine and the wider international context, including the work of OECD to tackled 'tax havens' and EU/US disputes over taxation. In addition, a new section provides a detailed survey of how the main taxes are levied in the thirteen candidate countries, and examines the possible effects of enlargement on taxation in the European Union itself.

Tax Coordination in the EU – the Latest Position

01-05-2002

This study is essentially an updated version of two earlier texts in this series: Tax Competition in the European Union (ECON 105 of October 1998) and Tax Co-ordination in the European Union (ECON 125 of January 2001). It covers much of the same ground as these studies, but takes into account recent developments both within European Union itself, and at the international level.

This study is essentially an updated version of two earlier texts in this series: Tax Competition in the European Union (ECON 105 of October 1998) and Tax Co-ordination in the European Union (ECON 125 of January 2001). It covers much of the same ground as these studies, but takes into account recent developments both within European Union itself, and at the international level.

Tax co-ordination in the European Union

15-12-2000

This working document is an updated version of the study originally published in 1998 under the title 'Tax Competition in the European Union'. The General Introduction covers the recent history of tax policy within the European Union, and examines the current situation in the fields of Corporate Taxation, the Taxation of Savings, the Taxation of Labour and Indirect Taxation (VAT and excise duties). The second section - Taxes on Labour, on Income from Capital and on Corporations in the European Union ...

This working document is an updated version of the study originally published in 1998 under the title 'Tax Competition in the European Union'. The General Introduction covers the recent history of tax policy within the European Union, and examines the current situation in the fields of Corporate Taxation, the Taxation of Savings, the Taxation of Labour and Indirect Taxation (VAT and excise duties). The second section - Taxes on Labour, on Income from Capital and on Corporations in the European Union: a comparative analysis - provides a detailed survey of how direct taxes, personal and corporate, are levied within the European Union. Finally, a third section - Competition or Co-operation? - discusses the main issues in the current debate on the alternative approaches of competition and co-operation in the tax field.

Awtur estern

Alicia MARTINEZ SERRANO (University of Murcia)

Tax Competition in the European Union

15-12-1998

Is competition between tax systems a useful discipline on revenue-hungry governments? Or does it erode the tax base, resulting in higher burdens on labour and higher unemployment? Does Economic and Monetary Union automatically mean tax harmonisation? Part I of this study examines these issues and the steps that have recently been taken in the field. Part II provides a detailed survey of how Direct Taxes - on labour, on savings and corporations - are currently levied within the EU.

Is competition between tax systems a useful discipline on revenue-hungry governments? Or does it erode the tax base, resulting in higher burdens on labour and higher unemployment? Does Economic and Monetary Union automatically mean tax harmonisation? Part I of this study examines these issues and the steps that have recently been taken in the field. Part II provides a detailed survey of how Direct Taxes - on labour, on savings and corporations - are currently levied within the EU.

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