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Mercosur: Economic indicators and trade with EU

10-12-2019

Mercosur, the 'southern common market', was founded in 1991 when Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asunción. In 2012, Venezuela formally joined Mercosur as a fifth member, but in December 2016 the country was suspended temporarily for failure to transpose Mercosur rules into Venezuelan law. In August 2017, the suspension was prolonged indefinitely. This paper presents economic indicators for the four members, for example showing their GDP and labour market situations, ...

Mercosur, the 'southern common market', was founded in 1991 when Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asunción. In 2012, Venezuela formally joined Mercosur as a fifth member, but in December 2016 the country was suspended temporarily for failure to transpose Mercosur rules into Venezuelan law. In August 2017, the suspension was prolonged indefinitely. This paper presents economic indicators for the four members, for example showing their GDP and labour market situations, and it also shows those countries’ relative positions on several indexes that assess the situation in terms of doing business, corruption and human development. Finally, it looks at trade between the EU and Mercosur – of both goods and services – highlighting the main trading partners, and the main products and services that the EU exports to and imports from the four Mercosur members.

Balanced and fairer world trade defence: EU, US and WTO perspectives

29-05-2019

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade ...

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade Defence Instruments (TDI), known as ‘TDI methodology’ and ‘TDI modernisation’. These new rules aim at enhancing the EU’s trade defence, without deviating from its commitment to an open economic environment set in an international rules based order. The US has its own rules and practice for trade defence and continues to distinguish between countries having a market economy and those who don’t - a difference abandoned by the EU in its latest reform. Moreover, the Trump Administration has imposed many new tariffs on foreign imports, often based on the national security exception provided by the WTO - a justification contested by most of the countries targeted. Furthermore, the US expressed concerns about the system of dispute settlement in the WTO, blocking nominations to its Appellate Body. Experts gave their views on whether all these recent developments are contributing to an international trade defence regime that is ‘fair’ and ‘balanced’, taking into account the different perspectives.

Awtur estern

Erdal YALCIN, Hannes WELGE, André SAPIR, Petros C. MAVROIDIS

Understanding trade balances

08-02-2019

Trade policy discourse on both sides of the Atlantic has recently focused on trade deficits and surpluses. In the United States (US), President Donald Trump has routinely referred to the US trade deficit as a central indicator of the country's economic woes and made its reduction a key objective of US trade policy. In Europe, the world's largest trade surplus, run by Germany, has come under scrutiny. However, focusing on trade balances of exports and imports can be misleading in the trade policy ...

Trade policy discourse on both sides of the Atlantic has recently focused on trade deficits and surpluses. In the United States (US), President Donald Trump has routinely referred to the US trade deficit as a central indicator of the country's economic woes and made its reduction a key objective of US trade policy. In Europe, the world's largest trade surplus, run by Germany, has come under scrutiny. However, focusing on trade balances of exports and imports can be misleading in the trade policy context. Trade balances need to be considered as an integral part of a larger whole, the balance of payments of an economy. The imposition of specific trade policy measures, such as unilateral tariffs, cannot be expected to improve a trade balance significantly.

EU Trade Relations with Latin America: Results and Challenges in Implementing the EU-Colombia/Peru Trade Agreement

22-02-2016

The Trade Agreement between the EU and Peru and Colombia has been provisionally implemented since the middle of 2013. However, based on limited secondary data available to date on its effects, this report shows that trade profiles have not been substantially altered. EU exports to Latin America are dominated by pharmaceuticals, machinery and vehicles, and have experienced very slight increases. Colombian exports to the EU have benefitted more than Peruvian exports from improved access, but oil and ...

The Trade Agreement between the EU and Peru and Colombia has been provisionally implemented since the middle of 2013. However, based on limited secondary data available to date on its effects, this report shows that trade profiles have not been substantially altered. EU exports to Latin America are dominated by pharmaceuticals, machinery and vehicles, and have experienced very slight increases. Colombian exports to the EU have benefitted more than Peruvian exports from improved access, but oil and minerals remain the top exports. Fruit, vegetables, flowers and above all sugar cane and confectionaries have been the greatest beneficiaries of the tariff eliminations and reductions. Despite this lack of substantial change, the institutional arrangements and sub-committees created by the Agreement have been implemented. Civil society has also been involved in meetings of the Trade and Sustainability sub-committee, but resource and capacity constraints preclude smaller organisations from full participation in the process. Sadly, reports of the human rights situation in Colombia, in particular the plight of trade unionists, continue to be negative. Although the Government has made progress in legislative terms, the full implementation of measures at the local level remains incomplete and challenging.

Awtur estern

Dr Maria J Garcia

Cuba's international trade

09-02-2015

Cuba's main imports are machinery, food and fuel products, while its major exports are refined fuels, sugar, tobacco, nickel and pharmaceuticals. In addition to merchandise exports, Cuba pays for much-needed imports through the export of services (tourism, medical personnel working abroad), remittances from Cubans living out of the country and finance from outside benefactors. The island recently reformed its foreign investment law and opened a Chinese-style 'special economic zone' around the new ...

Cuba's main imports are machinery, food and fuel products, while its major exports are refined fuels, sugar, tobacco, nickel and pharmaceuticals. In addition to merchandise exports, Cuba pays for much-needed imports through the export of services (tourism, medical personnel working abroad), remittances from Cubans living out of the country and finance from outside benefactors. The island recently reformed its foreign investment law and opened a Chinese-style 'special economic zone' around the new container terminal in Mariel with the aim of attracting additional foreign direct investment. President Obama's new policy on Cuba does not amount to lifting the US embargo as such, but rather expands and facilitates a specific range of possibilities for commercial and private exchange.

Trade and Economic Relations with China 2014

15-05-2014

Although China managed to sustain its previous year’s level of economic growth in 2013, its economy is headed towards further change and possible upheaval. Beijing has accordingly widened its focus, and is no longer concentrating solely on economic growth. Inflation remained stable in the country. However, falling producer prices present challenges for Chinese production. The real estate bubble and growing debt are threatening the country’s economic stability. Beijing has liberalised a number of ...

Although China managed to sustain its previous year’s level of economic growth in 2013, its economy is headed towards further change and possible upheaval. Beijing has accordingly widened its focus, and is no longer concentrating solely on economic growth. Inflation remained stable in the country. However, falling producer prices present challenges for Chinese production. The real estate bubble and growing debt are threatening the country’s economic stability. Beijing has liberalised a number of areas, reinforcing perceptions that the country is moving towards a market economy. The EU's trade and economic relations with China, the largest trading nation in the world, are generally good, and the number of disputes reasonable. However, the EU is dissatisfied with China's reluctance to fully implement its WTO commitments and, more generally, with its protectionist measures, which hurt EU interests. For its part, Beijing is still dissatisfied with the EU's refusal to grant the country 'market economy' status. The two parties recently settled three majors trade defence cases (solar panels, wine and polysilicon), which poisoned bilateral trade relations during the last year. Negotiations for an EU-China partnership and cooperation agreement, initiated in 2007, have yet to be concluded. In January 2014, China and the EU held the first round of negotiations for a bilateral investment agreement. Beijing has also recently offered to open talks for an EUChina FTA, but Europe’s reaction has been lukewarm.

Economic Dialogue with France

14-03-2014

This paper gives an overview of the economic situation in France.

This paper gives an overview of the economic situation in France.

Selected indicators on the economic impact of the crisis

28-02-2014

From average annual growth of 2.9 percentage points (pp) during the 2005-08 period, the recession brought average EU28 annual GDP growht down to 0.1pp in the years 2009-12.

From average annual growth of 2.9 percentage points (pp) during the 2005-08 period, the recession brought average EU28 annual GDP growht down to 0.1pp in the years 2009-12.

The g7+ group of fragile states

10-10-2013

The g7+ is an association of 18 fragile and conflict-affected states that have joined forces to share experiences and promote a new development framework based on five peace-building and state-building goals. The group brings together: Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Timor-Leste and Togo.

The g7+ is an association of 18 fragile and conflict-affected states that have joined forces to share experiences and promote a new development framework based on five peace-building and state-building goals. The group brings together: Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Timor-Leste and Togo.

EU car industry

30-09-2013

This document aims to provide a picture of the EU car industry, in particular by looking at car production trends since 2000, at the number of enterprises and the turnover they generated in 2011, and at certain specific developments in the years 2008 to 2011. We learn that the sector employs more than 2 million persons. In 2011, despite the recovery being reflected in a 5% increase in 2011 EU aggregate turnover relative to that of 2008, enterprises manufacturing parts and accessories for motor vehicles ...

This document aims to provide a picture of the EU car industry, in particular by looking at car production trends since 2000, at the number of enterprises and the turnover they generated in 2011, and at certain specific developments in the years 2008 to 2011. We learn that the sector employs more than 2 million persons. In 2011, despite the recovery being reflected in a 5% increase in 2011 EU aggregate turnover relative to that of 2008, enterprises manufacturing parts and accessories for motor vehicles had returned to 2008 turnover levels in only 16 of 24 countries.

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