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EU Youth Strategy

20-02-2018

This study provides an analysis of the EU Youth Strategy, established through the Council Resolution adopted in November 2009 on a renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field for the period 2010-2018. The EU Youth Strategy is, first and foremost, an instrument created to facilitate the coordination of Member States' youth policies, with the additional possibility of supporting actions taken at the European level and managed by the European Commission and other bodies and organisations ...

This study provides an analysis of the EU Youth Strategy, established through the Council Resolution adopted in November 2009 on a renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field for the period 2010-2018. The EU Youth Strategy is, first and foremost, an instrument created to facilitate the coordination of Member States' youth policies, with the additional possibility of supporting actions taken at the European level and managed by the European Commission and other bodies and organisations. Using the data available in various documents and sources on the implementation of the Youth Strategy, this study follows the structure of the Council Resolution, covering all fields of actions listed, as well as the types of measures introduced at the national level by Member States (strategy/policy/ regulation/guidelines/programme/other) in order to assess the relation between its parts and their take-up to date by the main actors in EU youth policy. It presents a compilation of findings allowing the reader to understand how much has been done so far, and shows substantial evolution in the activity of the European Union and individual Member States, particularly in learning from best practices and undertaking joint projects.

Social governance in the European Union: Governing complex systems

17-11-2017

Whereas economic governance is now undertaken in the EU through a regulated, 'hard' framework, there is no equivalent framework for social governance. At present, social governance in the EU functions mainly within the 'soft', unregulated realms, although it is also marked by some 'hard' governance mechanisms. This paper aims to give an overview of the social aspects of EU governance. It looks at existing EU social governance mechanisms and tools, including their current state of play, the debates ...

Whereas economic governance is now undertaken in the EU through a regulated, 'hard' framework, there is no equivalent framework for social governance. At present, social governance in the EU functions mainly within the 'soft', unregulated realms, although it is also marked by some 'hard' governance mechanisms. This paper aims to give an overview of the social aspects of EU governance. It looks at existing EU social governance mechanisms and tools, including their current state of play, the debates that surround them and possible avenues for their further development.

Social convergence and EU accession

28-09-2017

The European Pillar of Social Rights should serve as a 'compass for a renewed process of convergence towards better working and living conditions in the EU Member States'. Convergence of policies, regimes and outcomes happens either by 'growing together' or 'catching up'. There is, however, no consensus in the literature concerning the effect of European integration on welfare states. It is also difficult to discern whether European policy or the extent of its domestic implementation led to a certain ...

The European Pillar of Social Rights should serve as a 'compass for a renewed process of convergence towards better working and living conditions in the EU Member States'. Convergence of policies, regimes and outcomes happens either by 'growing together' or 'catching up'. There is, however, no consensus in the literature concerning the effect of European integration on welfare states. It is also difficult to discern whether European policy or the extent of its domestic implementation led to a certain result. While analysing gross domestic product and income levels alongside the social expenditure of individual Member States are the most common ways of measuring social convergence, new methods for producing synthetic measures and indexes emerge. Recently, in addition to countries' different starting points in terms of their history, institutional, political, economic and cultural contexts, the importance of micro-politics and micro-sociology are stressed as an explanation of different paths of development. For better policy design, a move beyond analyses based on traditional groupings of welfare regimes is suggested. Although both modern Spain and Portugal, and the central and eastern European countries, developed from authoritarian or totalitarian regimes, their social convergence paths differed greatly. In Spain and Portugal, the transition towards democratic stabilisation that began in the mid-1970s was further encouraged by EU accession. The countries followed distinct paths, but both experienced upward convergence. Following the 2008 crisis, however, their situation deteriorated steadily. Central and eastern European countries entered the accession process with many institutional, political and social challenges stemming from their transition to democracy since 1989. Their social convergence varied following accession, but was generally weak. After 2008, social convergence in the Baltic States declined greatly, but picked up quickly later, while the other countries showed some progress up to 2011, before deteriorating.

Multilingualism and lifelong language learning

26-09-2017

Rooted in the Treaties, multilingualism reflects the cultural and linguistic diversity of the European Union's Member States. Language learning is critical to the construction of the European Union and imparts essential basic and transversal skills. Language acquisition starts at home, and early childhood education can further enhance self-expression. Yet it does not stop with schooling, adults too acquire language skills, even outside the formal educational system.

Rooted in the Treaties, multilingualism reflects the cultural and linguistic diversity of the European Union's Member States. Language learning is critical to the construction of the European Union and imparts essential basic and transversal skills. Language acquisition starts at home, and early childhood education can further enhance self-expression. Yet it does not stop with schooling, adults too acquire language skills, even outside the formal educational system.

Aquaculture: Overview for the EU

28-08-2017

EU aquaculture essentially consists of the farming of shellfish and fish, in salt and fresh water. Having to meet requirements on environmental protection, animal health and the quality of products for consumers, this sector struggles to hold its own in EU territories. The EU promotes the sustainable development of aquaculture activities, in particular through the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund, the financial instrument dedicated to supporting the Common Fisheries Policy guidelines. This financial ...

EU aquaculture essentially consists of the farming of shellfish and fish, in salt and fresh water. Having to meet requirements on environmental protection, animal health and the quality of products for consumers, this sector struggles to hold its own in EU territories. The EU promotes the sustainable development of aquaculture activities, in particular through the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund, the financial instrument dedicated to supporting the Common Fisheries Policy guidelines. This financial support must form part of the implementation of the multi-annual national strategic plans for aquaculture, which the Member States had to put in place and, for which the optimal outlook will result in 25% growth in total aquaculture production levels by 2020. The European Commission is responsible for facilitating the implementation of the open method of coordination between Member States, a voluntary process between governments to exchange information and best practice with respect to certain challenges facing the aquaculture sector, in particular in terms of administrative burdens and installation authorisations for companies.

EU strategy in the Horn of Africa

07-12-2016

The Horn of Africa countries are plagued by violence and insecurity. A hub on the Red Sea trade and migration route, bordering the unstable areas of the Sahel and central Africa, the region is of strategic interest for the European Union. The EU has adopted an integrated framework to align various external policy programmes and instruments aimed at securing the region. However, strong antagonisms between the states concerned add to the difficulty of achieving a coordinated approach.

The Horn of Africa countries are plagued by violence and insecurity. A hub on the Red Sea trade and migration route, bordering the unstable areas of the Sahel and central Africa, the region is of strategic interest for the European Union. The EU has adopted an integrated framework to align various external policy programmes and instruments aimed at securing the region. However, strong antagonisms between the states concerned add to the difficulty of achieving a coordinated approach.