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Until his downfall in 1998, General Suharto ruled Indonesia with an iron fist. Since then, a series of reforms have transformed his authoritarian 'New Order' into the world's third largest democracy (and largest Muslim democracy). Indonesia has a presidential system in which a directly elected president serves as both head of state and of government. A maximum two-term limit on the presidency helps to ensure a peaceful alternation of power. Also directly elected, the House of Representatives (the ...

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance ...

This study is part of a wider project seeking to investigate, from a comparative law perspective, judicial proceedings available to individuals before the highest courts of different states, and before certain international courts. The aim of this study is to examine the various judicial proceedings available to individuals in Canadian law, and in particular before the Supreme Court of Canada. To this end, the text is divided into five parts. The introduction provides an overview of Canadian constitutional ...

Policy decentralization at the ECB

Uitgebreide analyse 15-09-2017

The decentralized implementation of ECB policy to national central banks has raised concerns about the transparency of policy operations. We argue that these concerns are misplaced: first, the sharp monetary easing under the assets purchase programme is actually allocated according to the capital key of the ECB; second, this allocation may feed divergences between the different Eurozone member states. Though the latter point is not part of the ECB mandate, we argue that another policy may well be ...

Monetary policy in the Eurosystem is ‘one and indivisible’, an exclusive EU competence. However, there remains an operational distinction: while the decision-making stage is centralized at the ECB, the implementation stage is decentralized at the level of the National Central Banks (NCBs). In response to the crisis the Eurosystem operational framework has undergone major changes with the introduction of non-standard monetary policy instruments as well as the recourse to emergency liquidity assistance ...

Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs has commissioned this in-depth analysis on the impact of Brexit on the devolved territories of Scotland and Wales as well as the Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It examines the economic and political implications of Brexit on these territories, the consequences of the possible return to devolved administrations of formerly ‘Europeanised’ competencies and looks at how Brexit might affect their ...

Erasmus+ is the Union programme in the field of education, training, youth and sport for the financial period from 2014 to 2020. This study looks into the implementation of the decentralised actions of the Erasmus+ programme by National Agencies, two and a half years into the programme period. Its aim is to map the opportunities and challenges encountered in the implementation of these actions and to formulate recommendations for improvement.

While Kyiv took an important step towards Europe with the entry into force of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area on 1 January 2016, Ukraine's path to peace with neighbouring Russia remains complicated. The implementation of the fragile Minsk II ceasefire agreement — negotiated by the leaders of France, Germany, Ukraine and Russia in February 2015 — has been extended into 2016. Several unresolved issues will continue to pose challenges to the fulfilment of Minsk II in 2016. The death toll ...

This in-depth analysis was written upon request of the Committee on Regional Development. The aim is to inform Members about the political, socio-economic and administrative system of Croatia, and in particular Istria County and the City of Zagreb. The analysis also provides an overview of cohesion policy in Croatia, including the arrangements in place for the 2014-2020 programming period and the European Territorial Cooperation programmes.

This in-depth analysis provides an overview of Ukrainian economic, political and administrative framework. It focuses on the description of the territorial administration system of the country, including its territorial division, the competences of different levels of administration and their financial capacities. This analysis provides also the information about the measures taken by the Ukrainian government, regarding the administrative organisation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea that was ...