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In recent times, the European Union (EU) has witnessed a sharp rise in hate speech and hate crime, yet EU law criminalises such conduct only if related to a limited set of protected characteristics, such as race and ethnicity. The Commission, with the support of the Parliament, seeks to address this limitation by extending the list of 'EU crimes' included in Article 83 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), to cover hate speech and hate crime. This can only be done by a Council ...

Equal pay for equal work is one of the European Union's founding principles, enshrined in Article 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). However, the implementation and enforcement of this principle remain a challenge. Due to a lack of pay transparency, pay discrimination often goes undetected and victims face difficulties in making a claim for redress. On 4 March 2021, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal on binding pay transparency measures. The proposed ...

The prohibition of discrimination and the protection of human rights are important elements of the EU legal order. Nevertheless, discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people persists throughout the EU and takes various forms, including verbal abuse and physical violence. Sexual orientation is now recognised in EU law as grounds of discrimination. However, the scope of the provisions dealing with this issue is limited and does not cover social protection, ...

Racial and ethnic minorities face discrimination and its consequences on a daily basis. The exact scale of the problem is hard to gauge due to a lack of data and general under-reporting of racist incidents. The coronavirus pandemic has seen a major increase in reports of racist and xenophobic incidents, and the crisis it triggered has had a disproportionately large negative effect on racial and ethnic minority groups, in the form of higher death and infection rates. Although since 2000 the European ...

The Directive 2011/98/EU on a single permit for third-country nationals (non-EU nationals) to reside and work in the European Union (EU) has two main objectives. The first objective is to facilitate the procedure for a third-country national to be admitted to work in an EU Member State, by introducing a single application procedure for a combined work and residence permit. The second objective is to ensure equal treatment between third-country workers and nationals of the permit issuing Member State ...

Discrimination based on racial and ethnic origin is still widespread in the EU. Action to combat racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and related intolerance rests on an established legal framework dating back more than two decades. This includes the Racial Equality Directive and the Council Framework Decision on Racism and Xenophobia.

Directive 2003/109/EC (the Long-term Residents Directive, or LTRD) sets out the conditions under which a non-EU citizen ('third-country national') who has legally and continuously resided in a European Union (EU) Member State for at least five years can acquire 'EU long-term resident status'. This residence status is permanent, grants these individuals equal treatment rights with EU citizens in several areas, ensures reinforced protection against expulsion, and gives them the (conditional) possibility ...

Women and transport

Studie 16-12-2021

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, summarises achievements in gender and transport in the EU in regard to knowledge and policies considering women as transport users and as workers in the transport sector. It introduces the most recent data and concepts, presents promising practices and provides EU policy indications in the context of the European Green Deal to effectively support ...

Both the EU and its Member States have signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and use its definition of disability as a common reference at EU level. Bearing in mind that there is no other harmonised definition of disability in the EU, and that there is a wide variety of statistical surveys in terms of questions asked and population surveyed, a complete statistical assessment of disability in the EU does not yet exist. However, the annual Eurostat statistics on income ...

The purpose of this study is to support the European Parliament (EP), in particular its standing delegations, in implementing the commitment made in the EP resolution of 23 October 2020 on gender equality in EU foreign and security policy. Based on desk research as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis, the study describes the existing EP practices of gender equality promotion, analyses whether the current practices deliver on the commitment, and presents what can be learned both ...