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Migration to the European Union from third countries has been substantial over the past few decades, as Europe has historically been considered a continent of relative economic prosperity and political stability. While many foreign-born individuals arrive in the European Union (EU) to work, pursue studies or join family members, the EU also receives a large number of asylum-seekers and refugees, not least in the context of the war in Ukraine since February 2022. As host societies, EU Member States ...

In December 2021, the European Commission presented a proposal to amend the Schengen Borders Code, which lays down the rules governing controls at the EU internal and external borders. While debates on the reform of Schengen have been going on for a while, recent challenges related to the coronavirus pandemic on the one hand, and attempts to instrumentalise migrants as a way to put pressure on the EU's external borders, on the other, have created new momentum for reform. The Commission's proposal ...

Since the beginning of the migratory crisis in 2015, growing numbers of unaccompanied children have been seeking protection in Europe. With increased migratory pressure in Greece along the EU's external border with Turkey at the beginning of 2020, and following the Greek government's official request for support, the European Commission launched a relocation scheme to speed up relocation of unaccompanied minors from the Greek islands to other EU Member States. Human rights organisations had denounced ...

The number of migrant children has been rising globally since the turn of the century. According to estimates by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, in 2020, 35.5million children were living outside their country of birth, 11.5 million more than in 2000. Child migration takes many forms, from regular family reunification to forced and traumatic migration. This infographic focuses exclusively on forced and irregular movements of migrant children to the EU.

The current crisis on the Poland–Belarus border and renewed attempts by migrants to cross the Channel from France to the United Kingdom have put a new spotlight on the dilemma of how the European Union should deal with refugees escaping repression and poverty in countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria, and some parts of Africa. In Belarus, authorities have allowed migrants to take flights into the country to purposely transfer them to their borders with the neighbouring EU Member States of ...

This ‘Horizontal Substitute Impact Assessment of the European Commission’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum’ was requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE). The impact assessment focuses on the main proposed changes implied by the European Commission’s New Pact, with a particular focus on the following four proposals: 1) Asylum and Migration Management Regulation (RAMM); 2) Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation; 3) Amended Asylum Procedure Regulation ...

This analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Special Committee on Foreign Interference in all Democratic Processes in the European Union, including Disinformation (INGE), aims to explore the impact of disinformation activity originated or amplified from abroad targeting minorities in the EU over the years 2018-2021. While disinformation has become all-pervasive, it can be considered as yet another tool being used to target vulnerable groups in society. Looking at recent disinformation ...

The number of people in the world that are forcibly displaced inside or outside their home country has risen significantly in recent years, as also showcased by the unprecedented arrival of refugees and irregular migrants in the EU since 2015. This highlights an urgent need to ensure organised, legal and safe pathways for protecting migrants who embark on dangerous journeys in an attempt to enter countries of destination irregularly, or find themselves in protracted refugee situations. A potential ...

Recent migration flows to the EU

Kort overzicht 03-06-2021

This infographic aims to present the latest available data on migrant flows to the EU in the year 2020. It covers the detection of illegal crossings on the EU's external borders and numbers of deaths of migrants on those crossings. This Infographic updates and complements previous editions, the most recent of which was issued in April 2020 (PE 649.329).

The United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef) has estimated that the number of migrant children increased from 24 million during the 1990–2000 period to 33 million in 2019. In 2019 alone, some 33 200 children arrived in southern European countries, of which some 9 000 (27 %) were unaccompanied or separated from family member(s) on the journey. There are various reasons why a child may be unaccompanied or get separated, including persecution of the child or the parents; international conflict and civil ...