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China's Arctic policy: How China aligns rights and interests

24-04-2018

Unlike the Arctic states, China has no territorial sovereignty and related sovereign rights to resource extraction and fishing in the Arctic. Faced with very limited rights as a non-Arctic state, China has been eager to design strategies to bridge the widening gap between the legal and institutional constraints in the Arctic and its growing Arctic interests. It has developed a self-defined Arctic identity as a 'near-Arctic state' and sought – and in 2013 gained – observer status in the Arctic Council ...

Unlike the Arctic states, China has no territorial sovereignty and related sovereign rights to resource extraction and fishing in the Arctic. Faced with very limited rights as a non-Arctic state, China has been eager to design strategies to bridge the widening gap between the legal and institutional constraints in the Arctic and its growing Arctic interests. It has developed a self-defined Arctic identity as a 'near-Arctic state' and sought – and in 2013 gained – observer status in the Arctic Council, to prepare the ground for a future expanded foothold in the region. China's first-ever white paper on Arctic policy of 26 January 2018 seeks to justify the country's Arctic ambitions through its history of Arctic research and the challenges and opportunities that rapid climate change in the Arctic present the country. China acknowledges for the first time that its Arctic interests are no longer limited to scientific research but extend to a variety of commercial activities. These are embedded in a new China-led cooperation initiative which aims to build a 'Polar Silk Road' that connects China with Europe via the Arctic and corresponds to one of two new 'blue ocean passages' extending from China's 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, launched in 2013. The white paper stresses China's commitment to upholding the institutional and legal framework for Arctic governance and to respecting the sovereign rights of the Arctic states. On the other hand, it asserts China's right as a non-Arctic state to participate in Arctic affairs under international law. China's Arctic policy suggests a strong desire to push for the internationalisation of the Arctic's regional governance system. The white paper is not a strategy document, and is more interesting for what it omits, such as the national security dimension that is a major driver of China's Arctic ambitions.

Research for TRAN Committee - Battery-powered electric vehicles: market development and lifecycle emissions

15-02-2018

As 2018 gets under way, there are probably more than three million electric cars in circulation in the world. There are also more than six hundred million electric bikes, scooters and motorcycles. Plus a few hundred thousand electric buses and other types of quadricycles having an electric motor. The first part of this paper traces the fast evolving market of electric road vehicles. The second part shows that the production of hundreds of millions of battery packs requires a lot of energy and plenty ...

As 2018 gets under way, there are probably more than three million electric cars in circulation in the world. There are also more than six hundred million electric bikes, scooters and motorcycles. Plus a few hundred thousand electric buses and other types of quadricycles having an electric motor. The first part of this paper traces the fast evolving market of electric road vehicles. The second part shows that the production of hundreds of millions of battery packs requires a lot of energy and plenty of scarce resources, which affects the real impact of electric vehicles on the climate and the environment and make it necessary to consider the recovery and recycling of used batteries.

Externe auteur

Linda Ager-Wick ELLINGSEN, Christine Roxanne HUNG

FACT-FINDING VISIT TO LUSATIA, GERMANY. 14-16 February 2018

08-02-2018

This briefing note was prepared by the Policy Department for the PETI Committee and provides background information on the region of Lusatia in Germany. In particular it contains background information on the Sorb population of this region and on various aspects concerning the lignite mining activities and its consequences for the population, the economy and the environment of the region.

This briefing note was prepared by the Policy Department for the PETI Committee and provides background information on the region of Lusatia in Germany. In particular it contains background information on the Sorb population of this region and on various aspects concerning the lignite mining activities and its consequences for the population, the economy and the environment of the region.

Mining Waste Directive 2006/21/EC

10-01-2017

In the aftermath of two major accidents involving the spill of hazardous extractive waste, the Mining Waste Directive 2006/21/EC was adopted at EU level with the aim to prevent, or reduce as far as possible, the adverse effects from extractive waste management on health and the environment. The deadline for transposition of the directive by the Member States expired on 1 May 2008. Research indicates that all Member States (EU-27) have experienced transposition problems in terms of 'timing' or 'quality ...

In the aftermath of two major accidents involving the spill of hazardous extractive waste, the Mining Waste Directive 2006/21/EC was adopted at EU level with the aim to prevent, or reduce as far as possible, the adverse effects from extractive waste management on health and the environment. The deadline for transposition of the directive by the Member States expired on 1 May 2008. Research indicates that all Member States (EU-27) have experienced transposition problems in terms of 'timing' or 'quality' or both. It appears that the majority of Member States have adopted the measures needed to implement the provisions of the directive, but the practical implementation of some aspects remains problematic. The quality of available data does not allow for the complete picture of practical implementation of the directive to be fully outlined and assessed. While EU legislation on the management of extractive waste is still relevant to real needs, the levels of effectiveness and efficiency across the EU may vary from one Member State to another. This European Implementation Assessment, which is intended to support the Implementation Report being prepared by European Parliament's Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, makes recommendations for action aimed at improving the identified shortcomings. The study also sheds light on the prospects for extractive waste management in the context of the 'circular economy' concept.

Gevolgen van de winning van schaliegas en schalieolie voor het milieu en de volksgezondheid

15-06-2011

In dit onderzoek worden de mogelijke gevolgen besproken van hydrofracturering voor het milieu en de volksgezondheid. De kwantitatieve gegevens en kwalitatieve gevolgen zijn overgenomen uit ervaringen in de Verenigde Staten, aangezien schaliegaswinning in Europa nog in de kinderschoenen staat. De Verenigde Staten hebben al meer dan 40 jaar ervaring hierin: er zijn daar al meer dan 50.000 putten aangeboord. De broeikasgasemissies worden ook beoordeeld aan de hand van een kritisch onderzoek van de bestaande ...

In dit onderzoek worden de mogelijke gevolgen besproken van hydrofracturering voor het milieu en de volksgezondheid. De kwantitatieve gegevens en kwalitatieve gevolgen zijn overgenomen uit ervaringen in de Verenigde Staten, aangezien schaliegaswinning in Europa nog in de kinderschoenen staat. De Verenigde Staten hebben al meer dan 40 jaar ervaring hierin: er zijn daar al meer dan 50.000 putten aangeboord. De broeikasgasemissies worden ook beoordeeld aan de hand van een kritisch onderzoek van de bestaande literatuur en eigen berekeningen. De Europese wetgeving wordt herzien met betrekking tot hydrofracturering en aanbevelingen worden gegeven over verdere maatregelen die moeten worden genomen. De potentiële gasbronnen en de toekomstige beschikbaarheid van schaliegas worden tegenover de huidige voorraad aan conventioneel gas en de mogelijke ontwikkeling hiervan geplaatst.

Externe auteur

Stefan LECHTENBÖHMER (Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy), Matthias ALTMANN (Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH), Sofia CAPITO (Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH), Zsolt MATRA (Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH), Werner WEINDRORF (Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH) and Werner ZITTEL (Ludwig-Bölkow-Systemtechnik GmbH)

Conflict minerals

20-05-2011

The illegal and brutal exploitation of mines in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) funds armed groups who terrorise the region. The international community has launched several initiatives against "conflict minerals". Most aim to encourage responsible conduct by industries that buy the minerals, through certification systems for smelters. The multitude of fragmented initiatives poses a challenge for coordination. Implementation, difficult in a context of chronic bad governance, could ...

The illegal and brutal exploitation of mines in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) funds armed groups who terrorise the region. The international community has launched several initiatives against "conflict minerals". Most aim to encourage responsible conduct by industries that buy the minerals, through certification systems for smelters. The multitude of fragmented initiatives poses a challenge for coordination. Implementation, difficult in a context of chronic bad governance, could endanger the subsistence economy on which Kivu residents survive.

Toekomstige activiteiten

20-01-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable with the World Bank: Where next for the global economy
Diverse activiteiten -
EPRS
25-01-2021
Public Hearing on "Gender aspects of precarious work"
Hoorzitting -
FEMM
27-01-2021
Public hearing on AI and Green Deal
Hoorzitting -
AIDA

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