49

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Common rules for gas pipelines entering the EU internal market

27-05-2019

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal to fully apply key provisions of the 2009 Gas Directive to gas pipelines between the European Union (EU) and third countries. Member States would need to cooperate with third countries to ensure full compliance with EU rules. The revised directive was seen by many observers as a part of the broader EU response to the Gazprom-led Nord Stream 2 project, which the European Commission publicly opposes. The Parliament adopted its ...

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal to fully apply key provisions of the 2009 Gas Directive to gas pipelines between the European Union (EU) and third countries. Member States would need to cooperate with third countries to ensure full compliance with EU rules. The revised directive was seen by many observers as a part of the broader EU response to the Gazprom-led Nord Stream 2 project, which the European Commission publicly opposes. The Parliament adopted its position on the gas directive in plenary on April 2018, whereas the Council adopted its general approach on 8 February 2019. This was swiftly followed by a single trilogue meeting on 12 February 2019 at which the EU institutions reached a provisional agreement. The agreed text was later formally adopted by Parliament and Council, and entered into force on 23 May 2019. Fourth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Energy as a tool of foreign policy of authoritarian states, in particular Russia

27-04-2018

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘ ...

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘near abroad’ and to make its geopolitical influence felt further afield, including in Europe. It uses gas supplies to punish and to reward, affecting both transit states and end-consumers. This study explores how supply disruptions, price discounts or hikes, and alternative transit routes such as Nord Stream 2 and Turkish Stream, are used by Russia to further its foreign policy ambitions, feeding suspicions about its geopolitical motives. The lack of transparency about Russia’s energy policy decisions contributes to this. In response, the EU is building an Energy Union based around the Third Energy Package, a more integrated European market and diversified supplies. By investing in new supplies, such as LNG, and completing a liberalised energy market, the EU will be better able to withstand such energy coercion and develop a more effective EU foreign policy.

Externe auteur

Rem Korteweg

Action plan on alternative fuels infrastructure

06-03-2018

On 8 November 2017, the European Commission adopted the clean mobility package, including legislative proposals to help accelerate the transition to low and zero emission vehicles, together with a communication on an action plan with investment solutions for the trans-European deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure. The Commission will present its action plan to the European Parliament during the March plenary session.

On 8 November 2017, the European Commission adopted the clean mobility package, including legislative proposals to help accelerate the transition to low and zero emission vehicles, together with a communication on an action plan with investment solutions for the trans-European deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure. The Commission will present its action plan to the European Parliament during the March plenary session.

Interne energiemarkt

01-02-2018

In het kader van de harmonisatie en liberalisering van de interne energiemarkt van de EU zijn sinds 1996 wetgevingsmaatregelen aangenomen die zijn gericht op toegankelijkheid, transparantie en regulering van de markt, op consumentenbescherming, een betere interconnectie en voldoende leveringscapaciteit. Met deze maatregelen wordt beoogd een meer concurrerende, consumentgerichte, flexibele en niet-discriminerende elektriciteitsmarkt met marktgebaseerde leveringsprijzen in de EU te creëren. Op deze ...

In het kader van de harmonisatie en liberalisering van de interne energiemarkt van de EU zijn sinds 1996 wetgevingsmaatregelen aangenomen die zijn gericht op toegankelijkheid, transparantie en regulering van de markt, op consumentenbescherming, een betere interconnectie en voldoende leveringscapaciteit. Met deze maatregelen wordt beoogd een meer concurrerende, consumentgerichte, flexibele en niet-discriminerende elektriciteitsmarkt met marktgebaseerde leveringsprijzen in de EU te creëren. Op deze manier worden de rechten van individuele afnemers en energiegemeenschappen versterkt en uitgebreid, energiearmoede aangepakt, de taken en verantwoordelijkheden van marktdeelnemers en regulators verduidelijkt en een bijdrage geleverd aan de voorzieningszekerheid van elektriciteit, gas en aardolie, alsook aan de ontwikkeling van trans-Europese netwerken voor het transport van elektriciteit en gas.

Russia in the southern Caucasus

18-01-2018

Armenia is a Russian ally, Georgia has chosen a pro-Western course, while Azerbaijan has kept its distance from both sides. Despite these differences, Russia has significant economic interests in all three Caucasian countries and enjoys considerable soft power.

Armenia is a Russian ally, Georgia has chosen a pro-Western course, while Azerbaijan has kept its distance from both sides. Despite these differences, Russia has significant economic interests in all three Caucasian countries and enjoys considerable soft power.

New rules on security of gas supply

05-09-2017

In February 2016, the Commission adopted a proposal to revise the 2010 regulation on security of gas supply. Trilogue negotiations in early 2017 produced an agreed text that was endorsed by the Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) committee in May 2017. The Parliament is due to vote on this text during the September 2017 plenary.

In February 2016, the Commission adopted a proposal to revise the 2010 regulation on security of gas supply. Trilogue negotiations in early 2017 produced an agreed text that was endorsed by the Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) committee in May 2017. The Parliament is due to vote on this text during the September 2017 plenary.

Workshop on EU-Turkmenistan Relations

27-03-2017

EU-Turkmenistan relations are in a position to be redefined by the proposed EU-Turkmenistan Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which will require the consent of the European Parliament (and of the national parliaments of the EU member states). This workshop served as a debate platform with the intention of clarifying the understanding of the current political and societal dynamics in Turkmenistan. Such an agreement should represent a basis to enforce better standards of human rights, rule of ...

EU-Turkmenistan relations are in a position to be redefined by the proposed EU-Turkmenistan Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which will require the consent of the European Parliament (and of the national parliaments of the EU member states). This workshop served as a debate platform with the intention of clarifying the understanding of the current political and societal dynamics in Turkmenistan. Such an agreement should represent a basis to enforce better standards of human rights, rule of law, and democracy in Turkmenistan, as well as for more intensive economic cooperation between the EU and Turkmenistan, which currently faces an economic crisis. The two concepts are apparently complementary but deciding which one constituted the more useful approach for engagement was the central point that structured the discussion. Regardless of the angle from which they approached the issue, however, a majority of participants in the workshop debate expressed support for adoption of the treaty, while some NGO representatives took a more cautious view.

Externe auteur

Sébastien Peyrouse and Luca Ancheschi

European statistics on natural gas and electricity prices

23-01-2017

Member States would have to collect statistics on the prices charged to industrial consumers and households for natural gas and electricity. Price data would be reported every six months for different consumption volumes, and cover energy prices, network charges, taxes and levies, and their sub-components. The proposed regulation would replace Directive 2008/92/EC that requires Member States to collect such statistics for industrial consumers. Data on gas and electricity prices for households are ...

Member States would have to collect statistics on the prices charged to industrial consumers and households for natural gas and electricity. Price data would be reported every six months for different consumption volumes, and cover energy prices, network charges, taxes and levies, and their sub-components. The proposed regulation would replace Directive 2008/92/EC that requires Member States to collect such statistics for industrial consumers. Data on gas and electricity prices for households are currently collected on a voluntary basis. Statistical data on gas and electricity prices are needed for monitoring the internal market for energy, and the impacts of various policies in the field of energy, such as support for renewable energy sources. The Commission has committed to preparing reports about energy costs and prices every two years, starting in 2016. The regulation came into force in December 2016 after completion of the legislative procedure in the European Parliament and the Council. This briefing updates an earlier edition, of June 2016: PE 583.850.

Towards an EU strategy for LNG and gas storage

19-10-2016

In February 2016 the European Commission published a communication on an 'EU strategy for liquefied natural gas and gas storage' as part of its sustainable energy security package. The Commission considers that improving the access of EU Member States to imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG), as well as developing more effective cross-border gas storage, would help to increase security of gas supply, reduce dependence on pipeline gas from a single supplier, and allow EU Member States to take advantage ...

In February 2016 the European Commission published a communication on an 'EU strategy for liquefied natural gas and gas storage' as part of its sustainable energy security package. The Commission considers that improving the access of EU Member States to imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG), as well as developing more effective cross-border gas storage, would help to increase security of gas supply, reduce dependence on pipeline gas from a single supplier, and allow EU Member States to take advantage of low global prices for LNG. In the October II plenary session the European Parliament is due to vote on an own-initiative resolution concerning this strategy document.

The quest for natural gas pipelines - EU and Eastern Partner energy policies: Security versus transit benefits

14-07-2016

The European Union has been increasing efforts to maintain gas supply security especially vis-à-vis its main gas supplier, Russia. In that context, Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, serving either as gas suppliers (Azerbaijan) or transit/corridor countries (all the others except Armenia), have an undeniable role for the EU. Security of gas supply depends on close EU cooperation with its EaP partners and interconnections between them. There have been some welcome developments, such as the Southern ...

The European Union has been increasing efforts to maintain gas supply security especially vis-à-vis its main gas supplier, Russia. In that context, Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, serving either as gas suppliers (Azerbaijan) or transit/corridor countries (all the others except Armenia), have an undeniable role for the EU. Security of gas supply depends on close EU cooperation with its EaP partners and interconnections between them. There have been some welcome developments, such as the Southern Gas Corridor that transports Caspian gas to the EU, which reflects the importance of the EaP partners and also contributes to EU energy security and the ambitious Energy Union project. On the other hand, a project aimed at doubling the capacity of the Nord Stream gas pipeline directly connecting Germany and Russia under the Baltic Sea has raised some criticism.

Toekomstige activiteiten

01-10-2019
Health threats from climate change: Scientific evidence for policy-making
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