10

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Datum

The future partnership between the European Union and the United Kingdom: Negotiating a framework for relations after Brexit

25-09-2018

Following the European Council's additional guidelines of March 2018, the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) have started discussions on their future relationship after Brexit. The aim is to agree on a political framework for their future partnership by autumn 2018, to be adopted alongside the withdrawal agreement. Conclusion of a treaty or treaties establishing future EU-UK relations will only take place after the UK leaves the Union and becomes a third country. Both parties have expressed ...

Following the European Council's additional guidelines of March 2018, the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) have started discussions on their future relationship after Brexit. The aim is to agree on a political framework for their future partnership by autumn 2018, to be adopted alongside the withdrawal agreement. Conclusion of a treaty or treaties establishing future EU-UK relations will only take place after the UK leaves the Union and becomes a third country. Both parties have expressed the desire to remain in a close partnership, which would cover several areas including trade and economic matters, internal security, foreign and security policy, and cooperation on defence. This study looks at the respective aims for, and principles underpinning, the negotiations, as expressed publicly to date by each party, and analyses some of the legal constraints and existing practices or precedents shaping EU cooperation with third-country partners. This allows assessment of the possibilities and limits of any future EU-UK partnership, in light of the stated objectives and 'red lines' officially announced, leading to the conclusion that, notwithstanding several common aims, significant divergences still persist with respect to the means of achieving the stated objectives.

Customs unions and FTAs: Debate with respect to EU neighbours

07-11-2017

The EU neighbourhood is undergoing deep transformations and this raises debate on how best to establish trade relations with neighbouring partners, like Turkey and the Eastern Partnership countries (such as Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia). Moreover, Brexit will entail the reorganisation of EU-UK relations, which will shake up cross-border trade flows. The EU can negotiate two basic types of trade agreement granting preferential market access to partners’ goods: free trade agreements (FTAs) and customs ...

The EU neighbourhood is undergoing deep transformations and this raises debate on how best to establish trade relations with neighbouring partners, like Turkey and the Eastern Partnership countries (such as Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia). Moreover, Brexit will entail the reorganisation of EU-UK relations, which will shake up cross-border trade flows. The EU can negotiate two basic types of trade agreement granting preferential market access to partners’ goods: free trade agreements (FTAs) and customs unions (CUs). CUs represent a higher level of integration, as the parties decide to harmonise their external trade barriers with the rest of the world. As FTAs do not maintain a single external border, they may result in trade deflection, whereby third countries can 'free ride' on FTA concessions by entering via the least restrictive border. For this reason, FTAs need to discriminate between goods originating in an FTA member and goods from third countries, through the introduction of costly preferential rules of origin (PRoO). Notwithstanding the cost of PRoO, FTAs have been the main type of trade agreements used, while the smaller number of CUs is due to the higher negotiation costs involved. CUs have therefore mainly been considered as a first step towards deeper regional integration. This is why there are ongoing political debates on customs unions in three different contexts: the assessment of the EU-Turkey CU, a CU as a further step in EU-Ukraine trade relations and the issue of the UK's exit from the EU CU as a result of Brexit. This briefing may be read in conjunction with one by Krisztina Binder, Reinvigorating EU-Turkey bilateral trade: Upgrading the customs union (PE 599.319), EPRS, March 2017.

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): Challenges and Opportunities for the Internal Market and Consumer Protection in the Area of Services

15-09-2015

This paper was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection. It finds that there is significant scope for the EU to benefit from freeing up of transatlantic services trade while safeguarding European values and preserving the right to regulate. Importantly, TTIP negotiation of reduced transatlantic regulatory barriers will help unify the internal EU services market, leading to significant increases in intra-EU ...

This paper was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection. It finds that there is significant scope for the EU to benefit from freeing up of transatlantic services trade while safeguarding European values and preserving the right to regulate. Importantly, TTIP negotiation of reduced transatlantic regulatory barriers will help unify the internal EU services market, leading to significant increases in intra-EU services trade.

Externe auteur

Kenneth HEYDON (London School of Economics and Political Science, the UK)

Cross-Cutting Effects of the EU´s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) on Developing Economies

15-06-2015

The world has seen rapid growth of preferential trade and investment agreements (PTAs) that, by definition, aim to go beyond the existing WTO obligations of the parties. With this growth comes the danger of incompatible obligations as these PTAs overlap within a country. This study examines the sources of overlap in various PTAs and the compliance costs that PTAs may create for a developing country, with a special focus on the agricultural realm. Examining the reality of divergent SPS standards, ...

The world has seen rapid growth of preferential trade and investment agreements (PTAs) that, by definition, aim to go beyond the existing WTO obligations of the parties. With this growth comes the danger of incompatible obligations as these PTAs overlap within a country. This study examines the sources of overlap in various PTAs and the compliance costs that PTAs may create for a developing country, with a special focus on the agricultural realm. Examining the reality of divergent SPS standards, we conclude that better-targeted “Aid for Trade” and regulatory streamlining within the EU can help to mitigate compliance costs in developing countries. Additionally, involvement of the private sector at an earlier stage in PTA negotiations may also help to clarify compliance costs and build their mitigation into the agreements.

Externe auteur

Christopher HARTWELL (CASE - Center for Social and Economic Research, Poland)

Financial Services in EU Trade Agreements

11-11-2014

This Policy Department A study for ECON covers rules on trade in financial services in preferential trade agreements (PTA), in view of current TTIP negotiations. The financial services sector is of strategic importance in trade policy. The EU has already obtained considerable PTA concessions, incl. new investor protection rights. Its PTAs also contain more developed disciplines on financial regulation, incl. prior comment obligations, data processing rules, prudential regulation and use of international ...

This Policy Department A study for ECON covers rules on trade in financial services in preferential trade agreements (PTA), in view of current TTIP negotiations. The financial services sector is of strategic importance in trade policy. The EU has already obtained considerable PTA concessions, incl. new investor protection rights. Its PTAs also contain more developed disciplines on financial regulation, incl. prior comment obligations, data processing rules, prudential regulation and use of international standards.

Externe auteur

Andrew LANG and Caitlin CONYERS

Comparing International Trade Policies: The EU, United States, EFTA and Japanese PTA Strategies

05-11-2013

This paper assesses the substance of EU preferential trade agreements compared to those of the United States, EFTA and Japan. The topic is important because of the growth of PTAs but also because PTAs are destined to remain at centre stage. The debate on PTAs is not therefore about whether and how they might grow in importance but rather how they reflect trade policy preferences of the parties and how preferential and multilateral approaches will interact. While PTAs can promote liberalisation in ...

This paper assesses the substance of EU preferential trade agreements compared to those of the United States, EFTA and Japan. The topic is important because of the growth of PTAs but also because PTAs are destined to remain at centre stage. The debate on PTAs is not therefore about whether and how they might grow in importance but rather how they reflect trade policy preferences of the parties and how preferential and multilateral approaches will interact. While PTAs can promote liberalisation in particular sectors and help generate economic growth, preferential liberalisation will always be second best to multilateral liberalisation on an MFN basis because of the trade and investment diversion inherent in preferential deals. In this light, the paper proposes policy recommendations for the EU, covering, first, the broad objectives and desired outcomes of EU trade policy in general, second, the overall framework of EU PTA policy; and third, specific, sectoral, goals of EU PTA policy.

Externe auteur

Kenneth HEYDON (International Trade Policy Unit, London School of Economics, the UK) and Stephen WOOLCOCK (International Trade Policy Unit, London School of Economics, the UK)

Proceedings of the Workshop on "Trade and Investment for Development"

29-06-2012

Presentations of the workshop on "Trade and Investment for Development" held on 29 March 2012 in Brussels.

Presentations of the workshop on "Trade and Investment for Development" held on 29 March 2012 in Brussels.

Externe auteur

Kenneth HEYDON (London School of Economics, UNITED KINGDOM) , Robert WADE (London School of Economics, UNITED KINGDOM) , Stephen KARINGI (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, ETHIOPIA) , Malcolm SPENCE (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, ETHIOPIA) , Patrick MESSERLIN (IEP & GEM de SciencesPo, Paris, FRANCE) and Sanoussi BILAL (European Centre for Development Policy Management, Maastricht, NETHERLANDS)

The EU Banana Regime: Evolution and Implications of its Recent Changes

14-10-2010

The study first surveys the key issues resulting from the long banana dispute at the WTO. It distinguishes 3 phases in the attempt by the EC to design an EU-wide and WTO-compatible banana import regime: the first (1993-1999) in which the first regime applicable to all EU member countries was introduced and challenged in WTO, and the first modifications made with changes to the methods for delivery of import licenses; the second phase (1999-2005) when the future regime was negotiated and the transition ...

The study first surveys the key issues resulting from the long banana dispute at the WTO. It distinguishes 3 phases in the attempt by the EC to design an EU-wide and WTO-compatible banana import regime: the first (1993-1999) in which the first regime applicable to all EU member countries was introduced and challenged in WTO, and the first modifications made with changes to the methods for delivery of import licenses; the second phase (1999-2005) when the future regime was negotiated and the transition to a ‘tariff only’ regime began; the last phase (2006-to date) with the signing of the EPAs and the ‘Geneva agreement’ of 2009. The second part of the study looks at the possible implications of these recent changes, suggesting that their net effects are expected to be positive for ACP countries, slightly negative for Latin American countries, and indifferent for EU producers, which are unaffected due to the decoupled payment system now used for most production. The recent EU bilateral agreements with some Latin American banana producers further erode the preferential access of ACP producers and of other Latin American exporters to the EU, which are all expected to experience a limited decline in their relative competitiveness in the EU market. The main adjustment costs are likely to be borne by the Caribbean exporters, which will need to receive the majority of the support envisaged by the EU through the bananas accompanying measures to help banana exporters to adapt to the changes in the EU's import regime. These resources should be allocated across countries according to the expected losses in terms of banana exports and production, taking into account the lessons from previous similar schemes, including the SFA, STABEX, the support for sugar producers and the EU Rum Programme.

Externe auteur

CALÌ Massimiliano (Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom) ; ABBOTT Roderick (LSE/ECIPE, United Kingdom) and PAGE Sheila (Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom)

A snapshot of the banana trade: Who gets what?

30-06-2010

With the “Agreement of Geneva” the dispute about the banana imports over 15 years seems to come to an end. The liberalisation caused by this agreement will have a substantial impact on the international banana market. In order to estimate the possible effects and measures to be implemented in the future it is necessary to know the current situation of the banana trade, the factors determining trade policies, the main stakeholders and nodes in the value chain for bananas as well as their impact on ...

With the “Agreement of Geneva” the dispute about the banana imports over 15 years seems to come to an end. The liberalisation caused by this agreement will have a substantial impact on the international banana market. In order to estimate the possible effects and measures to be implemented in the future it is necessary to know the current situation of the banana trade, the factors determining trade policies, the main stakeholders and nodes in the value chain for bananas as well as their impact on labour conditions and livelihoods in exporting countries.

Externe auteur

Dr. Pedro Morazán, Institut SÜDWIND, Germany

The Fourth Lomé Convention After the 1995 Mid-Term Review

01-01-1996

Overview of the fourth Lomé Convention with the amendments following from the mid-term review.

Overview of the fourth Lomé Convention with the amendments following from the mid-term review.

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The Art and Craft of Political Speech-writing: A conversation with Eric Schnure
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