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EU policies – Delivering for citizens: Industrial policy

28-06-2019

Through its industrial policy, the European Union (EU) has been striving to create conditions conducive to increasing industry growth and competitiveness since 1992. European industry remains a cornerstone of the economy, providing one job out of five, and is responsible for the bulk of EU exports and investment in research and innovation. Today, the aim of EU policy is to enable a successful transition towards digital, knowledge-based, decarbonised and more circular industry in Europe. To achieve ...

Through its industrial policy, the European Union (EU) has been striving to create conditions conducive to increasing industry growth and competitiveness since 1992. European industry remains a cornerstone of the economy, providing one job out of five, and is responsible for the bulk of EU exports and investment in research and innovation. Today, the aim of EU policy is to enable a successful transition towards digital, knowledge-based, decarbonised and more circular industry in Europe. To achieve this goal, the EU supports, coordinates and supplements Member State-level policies and actions, mainly in the areas of research and innovation, SMEs and digital technologies. In a Eurobarometer poll conducted for the European Parliament, more than half of EU citizens expressed support for increased EU action on industrial policy. Despite this, it is still the least understood policy area covered by the poll. Since 2014, efforts have been made in a number of areas, including investment (mainly through the European Fund for Strategic Investment, which supports industrial modernisation); digitalisation (for example setting up a number of research partnerships, or a growing network of digital innovation hubs); financing (making it easier for industry and SMEs to access public markets and attract venture funds); greener industry (for example through the revised 2030 emission targets, or measures on clean mobility); standardisation (bringing together relevant stakeholders to collectively develop and update European standards); and skills (mobilising key stakeholders to close the skills gap and providing an adequate workforce for modern industry). The European Parliament has called for ambitious policies in many of these areas. In the future, EU spending on key areas relevant to industrial policy is expected to rise moderately. The European Commission is proposing to boost the share of EU spending on research, SMEs and key infrastructure, although not as much as Parliament has requested. In the coming years, policies are likely to focus on seeking fairer global competition, stimulating innovation, building digital capacities and increasing the sustainability of European industry. This is an update of an earlier briefing issued in advance of the 2019 European elections.

Digital Europe programme: Funding digital transformation beyond 2020

11-02-2019

In the framework of the next long-term EU budget for 2021-2027, the Commission is proposing a new, €9.2 billion programme to build up digital capacity and infrastructure and support a digital single market. It will operate mainly through coordinated and strategic co-investments with the Member States in the areas of advanced computing and data, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity, their uptake and optimal use in the private and public sectors and boosting advanced digital skills. The programme ...

In the framework of the next long-term EU budget for 2021-2027, the Commission is proposing a new, €9.2 billion programme to build up digital capacity and infrastructure and support a digital single market. It will operate mainly through coordinated and strategic co-investments with the Member States in the areas of advanced computing and data, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity, their uptake and optimal use in the private and public sectors and boosting advanced digital skills. The programme aims to help European societies and businesses to make the most of the ongoing digital transformation. The Commission sees the potential for efficiency gains in exploring complementarities and synergies with other planned programmes such as Horizon Europe, the Connecting Europe Facility and the European Regional Development and Cohesion Funds. The European Parliament adopted amendments on 13 December 2018 and referred the file back to the ITRE committee for interinstitutional negotiations. The Council reached a partial general approach, which excludes budgetary and horizontal issues, in December 2018. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Ten issues to watch in 2019

08-01-2019

This is the third edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are the outlook for a new European Parliament and new European Commission, the way forward for the soon-to-be EU-27, the future financing of the Union, the process of digital transformation, artificial intelligence and collective intelligence, internal ...

This is the third edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are the outlook for a new European Parliament and new European Commission, the way forward for the soon-to-be EU-27, the future financing of the Union, the process of digital transformation, artificial intelligence and collective intelligence, internal security, trade wars, Africa, electric mobility, and the oceans.

Establishing the InvestEU programme

26-10-2018

Building on the Investment Plan for Europe, the Commission proposes to create the InvestEU programme, which would bring various existing EU financial instruments into a single structure. This would contribute to the cross-cutting MFF objectives (simplification, flexibility, synergies, coherence) and to the budgetary aim of ‘doing more with less’. This proposal, which would seek to mobilise public and private investments to reduce investment gaps, is based on the stakeholder consultation and different ...

Building on the Investment Plan for Europe, the Commission proposes to create the InvestEU programme, which would bring various existing EU financial instruments into a single structure. This would contribute to the cross-cutting MFF objectives (simplification, flexibility, synergies, coherence) and to the budgetary aim of ‘doing more with less’. This proposal, which would seek to mobilise public and private investments to reduce investment gaps, is based on the stakeholder consultation and different ex post evaluations of the programmes having relevancy for the InvestEU programme. The IA accompanying the proposal provides a thorough description of the challenges in investment, comprising both qualitative and quantitative elements, and links the proposed measures to the identified challenges. The IA discusses also risks and mitigating measures, although the risks and risk management could perhaps have elaborated in more detail. As regards alternative options, the IA discusses some options (implementing partners, organisation of governance, blending and combinations of the support) but does not provide an assessment and comparison of various options as is normally required under the better regulation guidelines. It would have benefited the analysis if the assessment of the expected competitiveness, economic, social and environmental impacts had been more elaborated as in this respect the IA is not very informative.

Prospects for EU-Asia connectivity - The 'European way to connectivity'

12-10-2018

Asia matters to Europe: home to the world's largest population and fastest-growing economies, Asia is a major trade partner of the EU. Recognising this, the EU has promoted the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), established strategic partnerships with four Asian countries, intensified cooperation with the Association of South-East Asia Nations (ASEAN), and negotiated or concluded free trade agreements with several Asian countries. As an implementation of its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has carried out ...

Asia matters to Europe: home to the world's largest population and fastest-growing economies, Asia is a major trade partner of the EU. Recognising this, the EU has promoted the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), established strategic partnerships with four Asian countries, intensified cooperation with the Association of South-East Asia Nations (ASEAN), and negotiated or concluded free trade agreements with several Asian countries. As an implementation of its 2016 Global Strategy, the EU has carried out a mapping exercise on Euro-Asian connectivity, followed by the adoption of a joint communication on 'Connecting Europe and Asia – Building blocks for an EU strategy' on 19 September 2018. The strategy proposes that the EU engage with its Asian partners through a sustainable, comprehensive and rules-based approach to connectivity, exploiting existing and planned EU networks. It acknowledges a significant investment gap in connectivity and recognises the need to mobilise and strengthen cooperation with private investors, national and international institutions, and multilateral development banks. The strategy is part of the EU's contribution to the ASEM12 Summit, which is to take place in Brussels on 18-19 October 2018. Presented by Vice President/High Representative, Federica Mogherini, as the 'European way to connectivity', the strategy was immediately perceived as the EU response to China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). This initiative is currently raising concerns in the EU and in several participating countries, some of which are worried about possible 'debt traps'.

Launching the Digital Europe Programme

08-10-2018

Despite its strong position in science, research and innovation, Europe lags behind when it comes to deploying digital capacities and taking up advanced digital technologies. That's why the European Commission proposed a new programme - the Digital Europe Programme - to support the deployment and optimal use of the digital capacities that underpin innovation in areas of public interest and business. This briefing provides you with an appraisal of the quality of the impact assessment, which accompanies ...

Despite its strong position in science, research and innovation, Europe lags behind when it comes to deploying digital capacities and taking up advanced digital technologies. That's why the European Commission proposed a new programme - the Digital Europe Programme - to support the deployment and optimal use of the digital capacities that underpin innovation in areas of public interest and business. This briefing provides you with an appraisal of the quality of the impact assessment, which accompanies the Commission's proposal.

The right to respect for private life: digital challenges, a comparative-law perspective - The United States

04-10-2018

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing the right to respect for private life in different legal systems, and between the ways in which the systems address the challenges that the ‘digital age’ poses to the exercise of that right. It analyses, with reference to the United States and the subject at hand, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law and the nature of the right to respect for private ...

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing the right to respect for private life in different legal systems, and between the ways in which the systems address the challenges that the ‘digital age’ poses to the exercise of that right. It analyses, with reference to the United States and the subject at hand, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law and the nature of the right to respect for private life, ending with some conclusions on the challenges discussed. Unlike jurisdictions that have adopted an omnibus approach to privacy protection, the US takes a sectoral approach to regulating privacy, with different regulatory regimes for different contexts and sectors of the economy. This report provides an overview of the different areas of law addressing privacy, including constitutional, statutory, and common law, as well as of relevant scholarly commentary. The report concludes with a summary of the current legislative outlook.

Externe auteur

This study has been written by Mr Luis Acosta, Chief, Foreign, Comparative, and International Law Division II, Law Library of Congress, of the US Library of Congress, at the request of the Comparative Law Library Unit, Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (DG EPRS), General Secretariat of the European Parliament.

The right to respect for private life: digital challenges, a comparative-law perspective - The United Kingdom

04-10-2018

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing the right to respect for private life in different legal systems, and between the ways in which the systems address the challenges that the ‘digital age’ poses to the exercise of that right. It analyses, with reference to the United Kingdom, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law and the nature of the right to respect for private life. Chapter 2 describes ...

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing the right to respect for private life in different legal systems, and between the ways in which the systems address the challenges that the ‘digital age’ poses to the exercise of that right. It analyses, with reference to the United Kingdom, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law and the nature of the right to respect for private life. Chapter 2 describes the concept of a right to respect for private life as it is recognised in UK legislation. This section of materials is subdivided into two parts. The first part outlines statutory protection for privacy interests, including the recently enacted Data Protection Act 2018 that gives domestic effect to the General Data Protection Regulations. The rest of chapter 2 discusses the most prominent set of statutory restrictions or qualifications upon the right. Privacy interests are thus revealed to be limited in the interests of national security and the prevention, investigation and detection of crime including crimes connected to the sexual abuse of children and young persons. Particular sets of laws authorise interception, examination and retention of digital online communications. Relevant obligations imposed on ISPs and telecommunications companies are described as are safeguards against unlawful forms of intrusion into these communications. Chapter 3 provides an overview of relevant jurisprudence in privacy related matters. A central focus of this chapter is the relatively recently developed tort of misuse of personal information. An evaluation of the overall state of UK law is offered in chapter 4. Finally, the conclusion identifies some privacy-related issues that are likely to arise in the near future.

Externe auteur

This study has been written by Professor Ian Cram, Professor of Comparative Constitutional Law, School of Law, Leeds University, at the request of the Comparative Law Library Unit, Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (DG EPRS), General Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Digital tourism in the European Union

28-09-2018

Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union, contributing about 10 % to the Union's gross domestic product and employing up to 26 million people through its direct, indirect and induced impact on the economy. While it is true that the EU is the global leader in terms of international tourist arrivals and receipts, fast-growing tourism to some other destinations is challenging this status quo. The EU tourism sector is also facing changes brought on by the digital revolution. Many customers ...

Tourism is a major economic activity in the European Union, contributing about 10 % to the Union's gross domestic product and employing up to 26 million people through its direct, indirect and induced impact on the economy. While it is true that the EU is the global leader in terms of international tourist arrivals and receipts, fast-growing tourism to some other destinations is challenging this status quo. The EU tourism sector is also facing changes brought on by the digital revolution. Many customers nowadays plan and book trips on their own through online travel agencies, search and meta-search engines, and making increasing use of mobile technology and apps. Some of them share their travel experiences through personal exchanges on social media platforms, travel blogs or commercial channels such as TripAdvisor. Most businesses serving tourists have understood the need to adapt their products to the changes in the way the market works, and consequently have launched various online and automatic services. However, some of these changes, such as the emergence of online platforms on which people propose to share temporarily with tourists what they own or what they do, have proved more difficult to adapt to. Although the EU has only limited competence in the field of tourism, it has an impact on digital tourism through various policies related to other sectors. In particular, the digital single market strategy has had a huge impact on tourism through various legislative acts. The EU supports digital tourism further through various funds and non-legislative initiatives such as forums, conferences and webinars.

Cross-border mobility of companies and use of digital solutions in company law

12-09-2018

In order to facilitate the freedom of establishment for companies, the Commission is proposing rules regarding the use of digital tools and processes throughout companies’ lifecycles and rules regarding cross-border conversions, mergers and divisions. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposals observes that the impact assessment is very wide in scope and hence quite complex, but nevertheless manages to make a persuasive case to back the regulatory action being proposed ...

In order to facilitate the freedom of establishment for companies, the Commission is proposing rules regarding the use of digital tools and processes throughout companies’ lifecycles and rules regarding cross-border conversions, mergers and divisions. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposals observes that the impact assessment is very wide in scope and hence quite complex, but nevertheless manages to make a persuasive case to back the regulatory action being proposed

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State of the Union: The view from regions and cities
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What Europe is Thinking: The latest Pew survey of opinion in 14 EU Member States
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