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Studies with a ‘Covid 19 angle’

23-06-2021

When the pandemic loomed over us in spring 2020, we asked experts to analyze whether it was possible to introduce a Covid angle into their studies. In many cases, it seemed prima facie a bit far-fetched. However, it soon became apparent that even in our area of work there were interesting aspects to investigate. This publication groups together the most relevant parts of the studies published so far and in which a Covid 19 angle has been presented and discussed.

When the pandemic loomed over us in spring 2020, we asked experts to analyze whether it was possible to introduce a Covid angle into their studies. In many cases, it seemed prima facie a bit far-fetched. However, it soon became apparent that even in our area of work there were interesting aspects to investigate. This publication groups together the most relevant parts of the studies published so far and in which a Covid 19 angle has been presented and discussed.

Gender-based violence as a new area of crime listed in Article 83(1) TFEU - European added value assessment

14-06-2021

This European added value assessment (EAVA) supports the European Parliament's legislative-initiative report on a 'Proposal for a Council decision to identify gender-based violence as a new area of crime listed in Article 83(1) TFEU', 2021/2035(INL). The assessment reviews the significant harm generated by gender-based violence in the EU and presents evidence supporting the classification of gender-based violence as a particularly serious crime with a cross-border dimension. Through improving prevention ...

This European added value assessment (EAVA) supports the European Parliament's legislative-initiative report on a 'Proposal for a Council decision to identify gender-based violence as a new area of crime listed in Article 83(1) TFEU', 2021/2035(INL). The assessment reviews the significant harm generated by gender-based violence in the EU and presents evidence supporting the classification of gender-based violence as a particularly serious crime with a cross-border dimension. Through improving prevention, prosecution and protection, EU action could generate significant benefits to victims and society; considering only the economic dimension, by decreasing the incidence of gender-based violence, it could generate benefits in the order of €25.1 billion in the short term and between €54.4 billion and €83.9 billion in the longer term. Moreover, the EAVA identifies complementary EU action that could enhance the European added value of this policy option, such as expanding the mandate of the equality bodies, promoting the quality of survey and administrative data and supporting education activities and training.

Gender equality: Economic value of care from the perspective of the applicable EU funds

14-06-2021

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It explores the impact of COVID-19 on the EU care economy, the gendered nature of care work and its continued reliance on unpaid or low-paid work of women. Issues of valuing and measuring care are examined selected countries are examined with different systems of care provision. Despite the recognition of the centrality of the care economy ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It explores the impact of COVID-19 on the EU care economy, the gendered nature of care work and its continued reliance on unpaid or low-paid work of women. Issues of valuing and measuring care are examined selected countries are examined with different systems of care provision. Despite the recognition of the centrality of the care economy during the pandemic, the establishment of a new highly significant EU funding mechanism (the Recovery and Resilience Fund, RRF) is focused largely on digital and green investments, paying only marginal attention to gender equality and the care economy.

Externe auteur

Ursula Barry

Women's entrepreneurship and self-employment, including aspects of gendered Corporate Social Responsibility

31-05-2021

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It highlights that despite the increasing number of public policies and institutional resources designed to promote women-led business, the entrepreneurship gender gap persists. This study aims to analyse this apparent contradiction, focusing on three main questions: What are the constraints that women face when deciding to become entrepreneurs ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It highlights that despite the increasing number of public policies and institutional resources designed to promote women-led business, the entrepreneurship gender gap persists. This study aims to analyse this apparent contradiction, focusing on three main questions: What are the constraints that women face when deciding to become entrepreneurs? What factors attract women’s interest and motivate them to start their own business? And which policies may benefit women’s entrepreneurship?

Externe auteur

María BASTIDA, Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

Understanding EU action on Roma inclusion

28-05-2021

The Roma are Europe's largest ethnic minority. Out of an estimated total of 10 to12 million Roma in Europe, some 6 million live in the European Union (EU), most of whom are citizens of an EU Member State. A significant number of Roma people live in very poor socio-economic conditions. The social exclusion, discrimination and segregation they face are mutually reinforcing. Their restricted access to education, and difficulties in entering the labour market, result in low income and poor health compared ...

The Roma are Europe's largest ethnic minority. Out of an estimated total of 10 to12 million Roma in Europe, some 6 million live in the European Union (EU), most of whom are citizens of an EU Member State. A significant number of Roma people live in very poor socio-economic conditions. The social exclusion, discrimination and segregation they face are mutually reinforcing. Their restricted access to education, and difficulties in entering the labour market, result in low income and poor health compared with non-Roma people. Since the mid-1990s, the European Union has stressed the need for better Roma inclusion. In 2011, a key EU initiative emerged with the adoption of an EU framework for national Roma integration strategies up to 2020, aimed at tackling the socio-economic exclusion of, and discrimination against, Roma by promoting equal access in four key areas: education, employment, health, and housing. As the framework had come to an end, the Commission adopted 'A union of equality: EU Roma strategic framework for equality, inclusion and participation' (2021 2030) in early October 2020. Through this new strategy, Member States are invited to tackle the disproportionate impact of the pandemic. In March 2021, the Council adopted a recommendation on Roma equality, inclusion and participation, replacing an earlier one from 2013. This recommendation encourages Member States to adopt strategic frameworks for the inclusion of Roma communities and to communicate them to the Commission by September 2021. The EU also supports Member States in their duty to improve the lives of all vulnerable people, including Roma people, through the European structural and investment funds and other funding instruments. Issues related to the promotion of democratic values and practices towards Roma, as well as their economic, social and cultural rights, have received particular attention from civil society organisations, while Parliament has advocated for Roma since the 1990s.

Gender balance on the boards of significant banks in the Banking Union

28-05-2021

EGOV analysed publicly available information on the corporate governance structures to determine the gender balance on the boards of the banks in the euro area supervised by the ECB (“significant institutions”), comparing the situation in 2014 with that in 2020. The general observation is that, overall, the share of female executive directors has risen in significant banks from 15.3% to 27.4% (see figure 1) and the share of female supervisory directors has increased from 22.3% to 31.7% (see figure ...

EGOV analysed publicly available information on the corporate governance structures to determine the gender balance on the boards of the banks in the euro area supervised by the ECB (“significant institutions”), comparing the situation in 2014 with that in 2020. The general observation is that, overall, the share of female executive directors has risen in significant banks from 15.3% to 27.4% (see figure 1) and the share of female supervisory directors has increased from 22.3% to 31.7% (see figure 2, further down); these levels are still quite distant from an equal gender distribution. Moreover, the differences between the nature of board (executive versus supervisory boards) and between the type of bank (large versus small) have become smaller. Large banks are, for our purposes, those with assets exceeding EUR 100 bn. Large differences in the share of female directors persist, though, if the data is grouped at the country level.

COVID-19 and its economic impact on women and women’s poverty

19-05-2021

This in-depth, case-analytical overview, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on a representative sample of member states with the aim of alimenting policy recommendations for the recovery period to ensure that the gains of the past years in the matter of gender equality are not overridden by the short-term negative effects of the measures implemented ...

This in-depth, case-analytical overview, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on a representative sample of member states with the aim of alimenting policy recommendations for the recovery period to ensure that the gains of the past years in the matter of gender equality are not overridden by the short-term negative effects of the measures implemented to combat the COVID-19 sanitary crisis.

Externe auteur

Paola PROFETA

The rights of LGBTI people in the European Union

11-05-2021

The prohibition of discrimination and the protection of human rights are important elements of the EU legal order. Nevertheless, discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people persists throughout the EU and takes various forms, including verbal abuse and physical violence. Sexual orientation is now recognised in EU law as grounds of discrimination. However, the scope of the provisions dealing with this issue is limited and does not cover social protection, ...

The prohibition of discrimination and the protection of human rights are important elements of the EU legal order. Nevertheless, discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people persists throughout the EU and takes various forms, including verbal abuse and physical violence. Sexual orientation is now recognised in EU law as grounds of discrimination. However, the scope of the provisions dealing with this issue is limited and does not cover social protection, health care, education or access to goods and services, leaving LGBTI people particularly vulnerable in these areas. Moreover, EU competence does not extend to recognition of marital or family status. In this area, national regulations vary, with some Member States offering same-sex couples the right to marry, others allowing alternative forms of registration, and yet others not providing any legal status for same-sex couples. Same-sex couples may or may not have the right to adopt children and to access assisted reproduction. These divergent legal statuses have implications, for instance, for partners from two Member States with different standards who want to formalise/legalise their relationship, or for same-sex couples and their families wishing to move to another Member State. Combating discrimination has become part of EU internal and external policies, and is the subject of numerous resolutions of the European Parliament. However, action in this area remains problematic when it touches on issues pertaining to areas traditionally the preserve of Member States, such as marital status and family law. This is a further updated version of a briefing originally drafted by Piotr Bakowski. The previous edition, from November 2020, was by Rosamund Shreeves.

Disinformation and propaganda: impact on the functioning of the rule of law and democratic processes in the EU and its Member States - 2021 update

27-04-2021

Between January 2019 and January 2021, the impact of disinformation actions and responses to them were considerably different than in previous years. Our research showed that disinformation actions increasingly merged with genuine content, and their sources became even more difficult to identify. Particularly strong impacts were seen in cases where disinformation and manipulative propaganda were spread by individuals with high levels of political authority, who enjoy the trust and attention of citizens ...

Between January 2019 and January 2021, the impact of disinformation actions and responses to them were considerably different than in previous years. Our research showed that disinformation actions increasingly merged with genuine content, and their sources became even more difficult to identify. Particularly strong impacts were seen in cases where disinformation and manipulative propaganda were spread by individuals with high levels of political authority, who enjoy the trust and attention of citizens. Diverse legislative and policy measurements were introduced by various Member States and third states, and civil society responses also flourished, particularly in relation to increasing resilience against disinformation. Ongoing research into the psychological mechanism of manipulation and resilience gives more detailed results. This study aims to provide recommendations on legislative and policy measures to protect democracy, the rule of law, and fundamental rights from the impact of disinformation, as well as to create a structured informational ecosystem which promotes and protects these values.

Externe auteur

Judit BAYER;Bernd HOLZNAGEL;Katarzyna LUBIANIEC;Adela PINTEA;Josephine B. SCHMITT;Judit SZAKÁCS;Erik USZKIEWICZ

The traumas endured by refugee women and their consequences for integration and participation in the EU host country

19-04-2021

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. The study focuses on the trauma that refugee and asylum-seeking women suffer when reaching their host country. Drawing on an extensive survey of scientific literature, international organisations’ reports, websites, press, and discussions with relevant experts, it highlights survivors' different needs and the structural, cultural and psychological ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. The study focuses on the trauma that refugee and asylum-seeking women suffer when reaching their host country. Drawing on an extensive survey of scientific literature, international organisations’ reports, websites, press, and discussions with relevant experts, it highlights survivors' different needs and the structural, cultural and psychological barriers to their resettlement in the EU. It argues for coordinated, gender- and culture-sensitive policies, EU collective responsibility in managing the refugee crisis and multi-level interventions from an intersectionality perspective.

Externe auteur

Dr Konstantina DAVAKI

Toekomstige activiteiten

28-06-2021
Child protection under EU law
Hoorzitting -
JURI
01-07-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable:The post-pandemic EU political system [...]
Diverse activiteiten -
EPRS
01-07-2021
AIDA-ECON Public Hearing on AI and Financial Services
Hoorzitting -
AIDA ECON

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