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The EU binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) covering the period 2021 to 2030. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment for each NECP. The Netherlands submitted its NECP in November 2019. A high proportion of Dutch people (73 %) expect national governments to tackle climate. The Netherlands accounts for 5.2 % of total EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has reduced its emissions at a slower ...

Since the discovery of offshore natural gas reserves in the eastern Mediterranean in the early 2000s, Turkey has challenged its neighbours with regard to international law and the delimitation of their exclusive economic zones (EEZs), and destabilised the whole region through its illegal drilling and military interventions. Ankara has used military force and intimidation, including repeated violations of the territorial waters and airspaces of neighbouring countries. Ankara has also used bilateral ...

The commissioner-designate, Kadri Simson, appeared before the European Parliament on 03 October 2019 to answer questions from MEPs’ in the Committees on Industry, Research and Energy. During the hearing, she made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to her portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to her by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - Safe, secure and sustainable energy; - Empowering people ...

In November 2017, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal to fully apply key provisions of the 2009 Gas Directive to gas pipelines between the European Union (EU) and third countries. Member States would need to cooperate with third countries to ensure full compliance with EU rules. The revised directive was seen by many observers as a part of the broader EU response to the Gazprom-led Nord Stream 2 project, which the European Commission publicly opposes. The Parliament adopted its ...

The European Union (EU) has been protecting the environment since the early 1970s, considering economic prosperity and environmental protection interdependent. As energy policies are a competence shared between the EU and its Member States (MS) joint strategic planning is strongly developed. Human activities can have adverse impacts on the environment, and subsequently on our well-being. Therefore, it is vital to monitor how MS perform in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy supply, ...

Highlights of the April I plenary session included debates on the Future of Europe with Swedish Prime Minister, Stefan Löfven, and on UK withdrawal from the EU. Important debates also took place on several legislative proposals, and Members voted on proposals including the mobility package files debated during the March II plenary session on rules for posted road transport workers and on working conditions for drivers. Parliament also adopted first-reading positions on three further proposed funding ...

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘ ...

W dniu 8 listopada 2017 r. Komisja Europejska przyjęła pakiet mobilności ekologicznej, obejmujący wnioski ustawodawcze, które mają umożliwić szybsze przejście na pojazdy niskoemisyjne i bezemisyjne, a także komunikat w sprawie planu działania zawierającego rozwiązania inwestycyjne dotyczące transeuropejskiego rozwoju infrastruktury paliw alternatywnych. Komisja przedstawi plan działania Parlamentowi Europejskiemu podczas marcowego posiedzenia plenarnego.

Russia in the southern Caucasus

W skrócie 18-01-2018

Armenia is a Russian ally, Georgia has chosen a pro-Western course, while Azerbaijan has kept its distance from both sides. Despite these differences, Russia has significant economic interests in all three Caucasian countries and enjoys considerable soft power.

Wewnętrzny rynek energii

Noty tematyczne o UE 01-11-2017

W celu ujednolicenia i liberalizacji wewnętrznego rynku energii w UE w latach 1996–2009 przyjęto trzy kolejne pakiety środków ustawodawczych, dotyczące dostępu do rynku, jego przejrzystości i regulacji, ochrony konsumentów, wspierania połączeń międzysystemowych i odpowiedniego poziomu dostaw. Dzięki tym środkom nowi dostawcy gazu i energii elektrycznej mogą wejść na rynki państw członkowskich, a konsumenci przemysłowi i gospodarstwa domowe mogą swobodnie wybierać swojego dostawcę. Inne dziedziny ...