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This paper provides an overview of current initiatives and actions aiming at reinforcing the anti-money laundering (AML) supervisory and regulatory framework in the EU, in particular from a Banking Union perspective. This briefing first outlines the EU framework for fighting money laundering, which includes legislation (most notably the 5th AML Directive) and a number of Commission and Council Action Plans. Secondly, an overview of AML prevention relevant authorities, at both the EU and national ...

This in-depth analysis provides evidence on differences in the practice of supervising large banks in the UK and in the euro area. It identifies the diverging institutional architecture (partially supranationalised vs. national oversight) as a pivotal determinant for a higher effectiveness of supervisory decision making in the UK. The ECB is likely to take a more stringent stance in prudential supervision than UK authorities. The setting of risk weights and the design of macroprudential stress test ...

This note is prepared in view of a regular public hearing with the Chair of the Supervisory Board of the European Central Bank (ECB), Andrea Enria, which will take place on 1 July 2021. The briefing addresses (i) the ECB’s TRIM Project Report, (ii) data on significant banks’ holdings of sovereign debt, (iii) the ECB’s publication on banks’ recovery plans, (iv) the ECB’s Supervisory banking statistics for the fourth quarter of 2020, (v) the ECB consultation on revised “fit & proper” guidance, (vi ...

As the COVID-19 pandemic hits all Member States severely, some initial signs are surfacing of what is likely to be a substantial increase in bank non-performing loans (NPLs) in the coming months. Strengthening the tools needed to face the problems caused by NPLs is therefore of foremost importance. This paper argues that asset management companies (AMCs) can be an effective tool in this direction. It further discusses the legal issues related to their implementation, presenting several examples from ...

Over the past three decades, the European Union has constantly improved its framework to fight money laundering and terrorist financing. Despite the constant improvements, the existing framework still suffers from some shortcomings. In 2020, the European Commission therefore presented an action plan for a new single EU anti-money laundering system, outlining areas for future proposals that the European Commission will present in a package in spring 2021. The main areas for this 2021 package will ...

This note is prepared in view of a regular public hearing with the Chair of the Supervisory Board of the European Central Bank (ECB), Andrea Enria, which will take place on 23 March 2021. During the hearing, Chair Enria will present the Annual Report on supervisory activities 2020, which will be published the same day. This paper addresses (i) the implications of supervisory measures in response to COVID-19; (ii) supervisory work for 2021 (supervisory priorities, stress test, fit and proper assessments ...

This document presents the summaries of four external papers commissioned by EGOV in November 2020 upon request of the Economic and Monetary Committee (ECON). Papers were delivered, analysed and published in March 2021. ECON has requested its Banking Panel to address the question of when and how to unwind COVID-support measures to the banking system.

Bank loans increased considerably in 2020, due to an unprecedented wave of extraordinary measures aimed at supporting bank borrowers. Where constraints posed by public-sector deficits were tighter, the response was more focused on contingent/fiscally-neutral measures (e.g. public guarantees and moratoria), which might lead to greater unbalances in the future. Post-Covid recovery can be expected to be selective in nature, both across industries and within. Accordingly, emergency measures cannot simply ...

This paper discusses policy implications of a potential surge in NPLs due to COVID-19. The study provides an empirical assessment of potential scenarios and draws lessons from previous crises for effective NPL treatment. The paper highlights the importance of early and realistic assessment of loan losses to avoid adverse incentives for banks. Secondary loan markets would help in this process and further facilitate bank resolution as laid down in the BRRD, which should be uphold even in extreme scenarios ...

This paper reviews the main differences between the prospects for NPL build-up and resolution between the current pandemic and the financial crisis of 2008-2009. To facilitate NPL reduction following the pandemic, the ECB should actively counter the revealed tendency of banks with low profitability to implement relatively low loan loss provisions.