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With internet-based communications services, such as webmail, messaging services and internet telephony, becoming subject to the strict confidentiality requirements of the e-Privacy Directive, providers' deployments of specific technologies to detect, report and remove child sexual abuse material online now appear unlawful. To accommodate such practices, the European Commission proposed a regulation that would temporarily exempt them from certain provisions of the e-Privacy Directive, without, however ...

Directive 2008/48/EC on credit agreement for consumers (the CCD) is part of the legal framework tackling consumer protection and the development of the internal market. Despite improvements in enforcing consumer protection policy, there are shortcomings in particular regarding the scope of application of the directive and the uneven regulatory choices made in the 27 EU Member States for implementing it. Moreover, there are new challenges – such as digitalisation and data collection, use and processing ...

Two decades after the entry into force of the General Product Safety Directive, the internal market is witnessing an increasing presence of products made with the use of or involving new technologies, online marketplaces are mushrooming, and a growing amount of products are entering the internal market from outside the European Union through these online marketplaces. Since the General Product Safety Directive does not have any provisions to guarantee that these products are safe for use, there are ...

Based on Member States' reporting under the Birds and Habitats Directives, the backbone of European Union (EU) nature conservation policy, the latest assessment on the state of nature by the European Environment Agency shows that despite some encouraging developments, the overall picture remains bleak. Only 15 % of habitats and around 27 % of species protected under EU legislation have a good conservation status. An EU-wide assessment of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems found that, overall ...

Critical Infrastructures (CIs) provide vital economic and social functions to European Union (EU) citizens. However, they are challenged by a diverse range of threats, not only natural and accidental but also intentional. CIs’ increasing reliance on technological advancements adds another element of complexity and vulnerability. Whilst their protection to date has been regulated by Directive 2008/114/EC, its scope of application has proved to be inadequate against an evolving landscape of security ...

Asbestos is responsible for more than half of the deaths from occupational cancer in the world. Since 2005 Asbestos is banned in Europe. The risks remain, because of the maintenance or demolition work on older buildings and their renovation (increasing energy efficiency) result in substantial exposure to asbestos and many people still work and live in asbestos contaminated buildings.

The Return Directive is the main piece of EU legislation governing return procedures. In general terms, under this directive, Member States must issue a return decision (an administrative or judicial decision imposing an obligation to leave the territory) for every third-country national found to be irregularly present on their territory. A proposal to recast the EU Return Directive is currently under discussion in the European Parliament and in Council. This infographic sets out the key data relating ...

Recasting the Return Directive

Briefing 11-03-2021

The Return Directive is the main piece of EU (European Union) legislation governing the procedures and criteria to be applied by Member States when returning irregularly staying third-country nationals, and a cornerstone of EU return policy. Taking into account the decrease in the EU return rate (from 45.8 % in 2016 to 28.9 % in 2019) and following European Council and Council calls to review the 2008 legal text to enhance the effectiveness of EU return policy, in September 2018 the Commission proposed ...

In the first decade of the 21st century, loans denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies, in particular the Swiss franc, became very popular in a number of EU Member States, including Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia, and also in two non-EU countries, Montenegro and Serbia. For a certain period, in some Member States these loans became the most popular type of loan issued to consumers. By pegging loans to a stable foreign currency, banks could lend more money ...

Council Directive 2008/114/EC is part of the EU framework for critical infrastructure protection. While embracing an all-hazards approach, its scope is limited to the sectors energy and transport. This is widely considered a shortcoming. Calls for broadening its scope and for refocussing the directive on resilience rather than just protection, and interconnectivity of critical infrastructures resulted in a new legislative proposal the Commission presented in December 2020.