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Empowering national competition authorities (NCAs)

18-02-2019

Since 2003, national competition authorities (NCAs) have boosted the enforcement of EU competition and antitrust rules significantly. However, each year losses of €181-320 billion accrue because of undiscovered cartels, which increase prices by between 17 % and 30 % on average. In March 2017, the Commission proposed a new directive to ensure that all NCAs have effective investigation and decision-making tools, could impose deterrent fines, and have well-designed leniency programmes and enough resources ...

Since 2003, national competition authorities (NCAs) have boosted the enforcement of EU competition and antitrust rules significantly. However, each year losses of €181-320 billion accrue because of undiscovered cartels, which increase prices by between 17 % and 30 % on average. In March 2017, the Commission proposed a new directive to ensure that all NCAs have effective investigation and decision-making tools, could impose deterrent fines, and have well-designed leniency programmes and enough resources to enforce EU competition rules independently. On 30 May 2018, Parliament and Council reached an agreement on the proposal in trilogue. It increases the independence, resources and powers of NCAs and envisages more harmonisation of the national leniency programmes and reduced burdens on undertakings. Parliament adopted the text on 14 November 2018, the final act was signed on 11 December 2018. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Child labour: A priority for EU human rights action

15-01-2019

Despite a comprehensive normative international framework that prohibits child labour, it persists in many areas of the world, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan-Africa, it has even increased in recent years. More efforts are therefore needed to combat child labour. However, not all work performed by children is harmful to their health and development. The first task is therefore to distinguish child labour – which entails harmful forms of work – from other forms of children's involvement ...

Despite a comprehensive normative international framework that prohibits child labour, it persists in many areas of the world, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan-Africa, it has even increased in recent years. More efforts are therefore needed to combat child labour. However, not all work performed by children is harmful to their health and development. The first task is therefore to distinguish child labour – which entails harmful forms of work – from other forms of children's involvement with work that are acceptable and have an educational component. While international conventions provide a broad definition of child labour, they leave the task of defining more precise criteria, such as the acceptable number of working hours per week or what constitutes hazardous work, to national legislation. Child labour is a complex phenomenon that has a multiplicity of causes, among which poverty usually features first. It requires a comprehensive approach to fight it, including awareness-raising among families and local communities, due diligence by companies involved in global supply chains, and action by governments, international organisations and civil society. The European Union protects children's rights through both its internal and external policies. It has deployed measures to fight child labour through cooperation with international organisations and has funded development projects whose aim is to counter it. The human rights conditionality enshrined in the EU's trade arrangements provides another path for tackling child labour. Nevertheless, there are numerous calls from civil society and the European Parliament to impose binding legal obligations on EU-based companies, to make sure their imports of goods from developing countries are free of child labour.

Empowerment of national competition authorities

13-07-2017

The IA consistently emphasises the benefits of effective enforcement of EU competition law throughout the EU and assesses the contribution of the screened policy options to the general and specific objectives of the proposal. Its strengths lie in the solid expertise, based on internal and external research, its clear structure and its overall coherence. The analysis of the problems and their causes, and of the objectives, is comprehensive and concise. However, despite a clear attempt to comply with ...

The IA consistently emphasises the benefits of effective enforcement of EU competition law throughout the EU and assesses the contribution of the screened policy options to the general and specific objectives of the proposal. Its strengths lie in the solid expertise, based on internal and external research, its clear structure and its overall coherence. The analysis of the problems and their causes, and of the objectives, is comprehensive and concise. However, despite a clear attempt to comply with the BR guidelines, there are some weaknesses. These include the limited quantification of costs and benefits, the rather limited range of policy options – considering that option 1 and 2 are identified from the start as being ineffective – and the limited assessment of the options, except for option 3, which appears to have been identified very early in the process as the preferred option. Finally, the IA does not develop any operational objectives for the preferred option. Consequently, the proposed core indicators relate to the specific objectives, which, in this case, are rather general. This might imply some challenges for the monitoring, measuring and evaluation of the implementation of the provisions in the future.

Limits on exposure to carcinogens and mutagens at work

02-02-2017

The European Commission proposes to amend Directive 2004/37/EC by expanding its scope and by including and/or revising occupational exposure limit values for a number of cancer-causing chemical agents. According to the Commission, this would improve workers' health protection, increase the effectiveness of the EU framework and promote clarity for economic operators. Overall, the proposal has received a broad welcome from stakeholders. The Council reached a general approach on 13 October 2016. The ...

The European Commission proposes to amend Directive 2004/37/EC by expanding its scope and by including and/or revising occupational exposure limit values for a number of cancer-causing chemical agents. According to the Commission, this would improve workers' health protection, increase the effectiveness of the EU framework and promote clarity for economic operators. Overall, the proposal has received a broad welcome from stakeholders. The Council reached a general approach on 13 October 2016. The European Parliament's EMPL Committee rapporteur has presented her draft report, which was considered in December. A total of 196 amendments have been tabled on the Commission proposal. The Committee vote is scheduled for 27-28 February 2017.

Latin America's informal economy

22-09-2016

Informal employment affects around 130 million workers in Latin America and the Caribbean, of whom at least 27 million are young people, and represents nearly half of non-agricultural employment. Its incidence varies across the region's countries (from 30.7% in Costa Rica to 73.6% in Guatemala), sectors and population groups. Fighting informality has become a clear objective in the region. Some Latin American countries have taken big steps to reduce informality, applying a different mix of specific ...

Informal employment affects around 130 million workers in Latin America and the Caribbean, of whom at least 27 million are young people, and represents nearly half of non-agricultural employment. Its incidence varies across the region's countries (from 30.7% in Costa Rica to 73.6% in Guatemala), sectors and population groups. Fighting informality has become a clear objective in the region. Some Latin American countries have taken big steps to reduce informality, applying a different mix of specific policies and strategies and obtaining generally positive results; however, more efforts are needed. Moreover, the current crisis can endanger this positive trend. International institutions, such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the EU, are also promoting measures to support the transition to the formal economy in the region, and the European Parliament has shown a special interest in this issue. Yet, formalisation in Latin America remains an important challenge, and economic growth alone is not enough to achieve it: the ILO insists on an integrated and comprehensive approach that would complement public policies with efforts by social actors as a way to achieve broad-based consensus. Experts agree that the focus should be on workers' social and labour inclusion. This briefing examines the strategies applied by five big Latin American economies – Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru – based on recent ILO studies, and looks at the results obtained thus far and the assistance provided by the EU and the ILO.

Burden Sharing Impact of Climate Change mitigation policies on growth and jobs

27-03-2008

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Samuela Bassi (IEEP) Jason Anderson (IEEP)∗ Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)

Planowane wydarzenia

20-11-2019
Europe's Future: Where next for EU institutional Reform?
Inne wydarzenie -
EPRS

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