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The NIS2 Directive: A high common level of cybersecurity in the EU

19-02-2021

The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has ...

The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has submitted a proposal to replace the NIS Directive and thereby strengthen the security requirements, address the security of supply chains, streamline reporting obligations, and introduce more stringent supervisory measures and stricter enforcement requirements, including harmonised sanctions across the EU. The proposed expansion of the scope covered by the NIS2, by effectively obliging more entities and sectors to take measures, would assist in increasing the level of cybersecurity in Europe in the longer term. Within the European Parliament, the file has been assigned to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Democratic institutions and prosperity: The benefits of an open society

04-02-2021

The ongoing structural transformation and the rapid spread of the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution are challenging current democratic institutions and their established forms of governance and regulation. At the same time, these changes offer vast opportunities to enhance, strengthen and expand the existing democratic framework to reflect a more complex and interdependent world. This process has already begun in many democratic societies but further progress is needed. Examining these ...

The ongoing structural transformation and the rapid spread of the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution are challenging current democratic institutions and their established forms of governance and regulation. At the same time, these changes offer vast opportunities to enhance, strengthen and expand the existing democratic framework to reflect a more complex and interdependent world. This process has already begun in many democratic societies but further progress is needed. Examining these issues involves looking at the impact of ongoing complex and simultaneous changes on the theoretical framework underpinning beneficial democratic regulation. More specifically, combining economic, legal and political perspectives, it is necessary to explore how some adaptations to existing democratic institutions could further improve the functioning of democracies while also delivering additional economic benefits to citizens and society as whole. The introduction of a series of promising new tools could offer a potential way to support democratic decision-makers in regulating complexity and tackling ongoing and future challenges. The first of these tools is to use strategic foresight to anticipate and control future events; the second is collective intelligence, following the idea that citizens are collectively capable of providing better solutions to regulatory problems than are public administrations; the third and fourth are concerned with design-thinking and algorithmic regulation respectively. Design-based approaches are credited with opening up innovative options for policy-makers, while algorithms hold the promise of enabling decision-making to handle complex issues while remaining participatory.

Controversial legislative elections in Venezuela

21-12-2020

The mandate of the Venezuelan National Assembly, democratically elected in 2015, comes to an end on 5 January 2021; to renew it, the Maduro government called new legislative elections for 6 December 2020. While the government tightened its grip on power to secure a favourable outcome for itself, including through the appointment of a new electoral council, the opposition-led National Assembly presided by Juan Guaidó insisted on holding free and fair presidential and legislative elections with recognised ...

The mandate of the Venezuelan National Assembly, democratically elected in 2015, comes to an end on 5 January 2021; to renew it, the Maduro government called new legislative elections for 6 December 2020. While the government tightened its grip on power to secure a favourable outcome for itself, including through the appointment of a new electoral council, the opposition-led National Assembly presided by Juan Guaidó insisted on holding free and fair presidential and legislative elections with recognised international observers. The main opposition parties boycotted the 6 December elections – which were also ignored by at least 70 % of eligible voters – and held an alternative public consultation from 7 to 12 December, which resulted in a slightly higher turnout. The opposition described the elections as fraudulent, claiming that they had not met the minimum democratic requirements to qualify as free, fair and transparent. This position was shared by international players such as the European Union, the United States, the Organisation of American States and the Lima Group. Though the outlook of the Venezuelan crisis remains uncertain, there is still hope for a negotiated solution.

What future for democracy?

11-12-2020

A panel at the 2020 ESPAS conference discussed the future of democracy in the light of the coronavirus pandemic. Participatory democracy was seen as a potential remedy for polarisation, while digitisation brings a need for careful governance. Misinformation and disinformation needs to be addressed through education. A poll of attendees identified tax equity as a key innovation for successfully rebuilding democracy.

A panel at the 2020 ESPAS conference discussed the future of democracy in the light of the coronavirus pandemic. Participatory democracy was seen as a potential remedy for polarisation, while digitisation brings a need for careful governance. Misinformation and disinformation needs to be addressed through education. A poll of attendees identified tax equity as a key innovation for successfully rebuilding democracy.

Akt prawny o usługach cyfrowych

14-10-2020

Podczas drugiej październikowej sesji plenarnej Parlament ma głosować nad trzema sprawozdaniami Komisji Rynku Wewnętrznego i Ochrony Konsumentów, Komisji Prawnej oraz Komisji Wolności Obywatelskich, Sprawiedliwości i Spraw Wewnętrznych, w których przedstawiono wstępne stanowisko Parlamentu w sprawie przeglądu unijnych ram prawnych dotyczących usług online przed spodziewanym wnioskiem Komisji w sprawie pakietu dotyczącego aktu prawnego o usługach cyfrowych.

Podczas drugiej październikowej sesji plenarnej Parlament ma głosować nad trzema sprawozdaniami Komisji Rynku Wewnętrznego i Ochrony Konsumentów, Komisji Prawnej oraz Komisji Wolności Obywatelskich, Sprawiedliwości i Spraw Wewnętrznych, w których przedstawiono wstępne stanowisko Parlamentu w sprawie przeglądu unijnych ram prawnych dotyczących usług online przed spodziewanym wnioskiem Komisji w sprawie pakietu dotyczącego aktu prawnego o usługach cyfrowych.

EU initiatives and funding to support sustainable urban mobility

15-09-2020

In 2050, approximately 84 % of Europeans will be living in an urban area. A common challenge for all urban areas is to enhance mobility and reduce congestion, accidents and air pollution. The search for appropriate solutions to urban transport challenges has been part of EU policy in various fields for a long time. This paper provides an overview of the EU initiatives and funding opportunities to support sustainable urban mobility in Europe.

In 2050, approximately 84 % of Europeans will be living in an urban area. A common challenge for all urban areas is to enhance mobility and reduce congestion, accidents and air pollution. The search for appropriate solutions to urban transport challenges has been part of EU policy in various fields for a long time. This paper provides an overview of the EU initiatives and funding opportunities to support sustainable urban mobility in Europe.

Europeanising European Public Spheres

15-06-2020

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides a brief overview of the academic debates on Europeanisation as well as contestation and politicisation of the EU and European integration. Against this background, it focuses on the European public sphere(s), in particular those based on the media and parliaments. The study further discusses current reform proposals aiming to Europeanise ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides a brief overview of the academic debates on Europeanisation as well as contestation and politicisation of the EU and European integration. Against this background, it focuses on the European public sphere(s), in particular those based on the media and parliaments. The study further discusses current reform proposals aiming to Europeanise the European elections and concludes with recommendations on increasing the legitimacy of the European Union.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Katrin AUEL, Guido TIEMANN

Preparing the Conference on the Future of Europe

03-12-2019

After the many debates and declarations of principles on the future of Europe of recent years, the time for a more structured reflection on the future of Europe's development has arrived. The new President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen has pledged to establish a Conference on the Future of Europe, in an effort to give new impulse to European construction and bring Europe closer to citizens. At this stage, details of this initiative are still up for discussion. For Dubravka Šuica ...

After the many debates and declarations of principles on the future of Europe of recent years, the time for a more structured reflection on the future of Europe's development has arrived. The new President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen has pledged to establish a Conference on the Future of Europe, in an effort to give new impulse to European construction and bring Europe closer to citizens. At this stage, details of this initiative are still up for discussion. For Dubravka Šuica, the Commissioner who will take charge of the process, the inclusion of all citizens' voices will be an essential characteristic of the Conference. However, how to ensure that European citizens are properly represented remains to be clarified. Preparation of the Conference, in von der Leyen's approach, will follow three steps: first, the elaboration of the concept, structure, timing and scope with Parliament and Council; then, design of a means to ensure that citizens participate as much as possible, including by fostering online participation for younger people; and last, making sure that appropriate follow-up is provided to the actions agreed by the Conference. The Parliament has created a working group to contribute to the design of the Conference, in particular in respect of its structure, with a view to a vote in plenary. Parliament's Committee on Constitutional Affairs (AFCO) has also launched discussions, confirming the eagerness of Parliament and its political bodies to play an active part from the beginning of this process. The Conference on the Future of Europe should be an excellent opportunity to engage in more structured debate, with the intention to find concrete proposals to improve the way in which the EU works not only in terms of institutional dynamics, but also of its policies. Some have however cautioned that the initiative needs to be carried out with the utmost care, in particular on the follow-up to be given to its outcomes, so that it can remain a meaningful endeavour.

Ensuring more transparent and predictable working conditions

26-08-2019

An employer's obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to their contracts is regulated by Directive 91/533/EEC. Major shifts in the labour market due to demographic trends and digitalisation, spawning a growing number of non-standard employment relationships, have made it necessary to revise this directive. The European Commission therefore came forward with a proposal for a directive aimed at updating and extending the information on employment-related obligations and working ...

An employer's obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to their contracts is regulated by Directive 91/533/EEC. Major shifts in the labour market due to demographic trends and digitalisation, spawning a growing number of non-standard employment relationships, have made it necessary to revise this directive. The European Commission therefore came forward with a proposal for a directive aimed at updating and extending the information on employment-related obligations and working conditions, and at creating new minimum standards for all employed workers, including those on atypical contracts. In the European Parliament, the Committee for Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL) considered the proposal and adopted a report focusing in particular on the scope, on employees' working hours, on the conditions for making information available to them, and on employers' responsibilities. Following trilogue negotiations, the European Parliament and the Council reached an agreement on the content of the draft legislation. The final act was signed on 20 June 2019 and published in the Official Journal on 11 July 2019. Member States have until 1 August 2022 to take the necessary measures to comply with the new directive. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Establishing the 'Customs' programme 2021-2027

30-11-2018

The impact assessment provides a good overview of the problems facing EU customs cooperation that need to be tackled after 2020, and sets out well the rationale for the new programme. However, the overall analysis is undermined by the limited range of viable options and the absence of a proper comparison of the options and assessment of their impacts, contrary to the Better Regulation guidelines. A more thorough assessment would have helped to better explain the choice of the preferred option.

The impact assessment provides a good overview of the problems facing EU customs cooperation that need to be tackled after 2020, and sets out well the rationale for the new programme. However, the overall analysis is undermined by the limited range of viable options and the absence of a proper comparison of the options and assessment of their impacts, contrary to the Better Regulation guidelines. A more thorough assessment would have helped to better explain the choice of the preferred option.

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