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What if insects were on the menu in Europe?

03-07-2020

Insects, while commonly consumed elsewhere in the world, have long been off the menu in Europe – but they could soon be creeping their way onto our plates. Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is now gaining serious interest – is it set to take Europe by swarm?

Insects, while commonly consumed elsewhere in the world, have long been off the menu in Europe – but they could soon be creeping their way onto our plates. Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is now gaining serious interest – is it set to take Europe by swarm?

Artificial intelligence: How does it work, why does it matter, and what can we do about it?

28-06-2020

Artificial intelligence (AI) is probably the defining technology of the last decade, and perhaps also the next. The aim of this report is to support meaningful reflection and productive debate about AI by providing accessible information about the full range of current and speculative techniques and their associated impacts, and setting out a wide range of regulatory, technological and societal measures that could be mobilised in response.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is probably the defining technology of the last decade, and perhaps also the next. The aim of this report is to support meaningful reflection and productive debate about AI by providing accessible information about the full range of current and speculative techniques and their associated impacts, and setting out a wide range of regulatory, technological and societal measures that could be mobilised in response.

The impact of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) on artificial intelligence

25-06-2020

This study addresses the relation between the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and artificial intelligence (AI). It considers challenges and opportunities for individuals and society, and the ways in which risks can be countered and opportunities enabled through law and technology. The study discusses the tensions and proximities between AI and data protection principles, such as in particular purpose limitation and data minimisation. It makes a thorough analysis of automated decision-making ...

This study addresses the relation between the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and artificial intelligence (AI). It considers challenges and opportunities for individuals and society, and the ways in which risks can be countered and opportunities enabled through law and technology. The study discusses the tensions and proximities between AI and data protection principles, such as in particular purpose limitation and data minimisation. It makes a thorough analysis of automated decision-making, considering the extent to which it is admissible, the safeguard measures to be adopted, and whether data subjects have a right to individual explanations. The study then considers the extent to which the GDPR provides for a preventive risk-based approach, focused on data protection by design and by default.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

DG, EPRS_The study was led by Professor Giovanni Sartor, European University Institute of Florence, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament. It was co-authored by Professor Sartor and Dr Francesca Lagioia, European University Institute of Florence, working under his supervision.

Exploring the performance gap in EU Framework Programmes between EU13 and EU15 Member States

17-06-2020

The European Union (EU)'s Research and Innovation Framework Programmes are the largest programmes for international research collaboration worldwide. Repeated reports point to the issue of underperformance in the Framework Programmes by the EU13 Member States - countries that joined the EU in and after 2004 - in comparison with the EU15 Member States - which entered the EU before 2004. This in-depth analysis explores the background of various challenges in research and development of EU13 vs EU15 ...

The European Union (EU)'s Research and Innovation Framework Programmes are the largest programmes for international research collaboration worldwide. Repeated reports point to the issue of underperformance in the Framework Programmes by the EU13 Member States - countries that joined the EU in and after 2004 - in comparison with the EU15 Member States - which entered the EU before 2004. This in-depth analysis explores the background of various challenges in research and development of EU13 vs EU15, in order to investigate the gap between these two groups. A set of hypotheses, divided in five domains, are tested empirically. This includes: research and innovation system structure; scientific level of research institutions and quality of proposals; quantity of submitted proposals; level of international collaboration; and other factors related to the Framework Programmes. The weak positions of most EU13 Member States for several of the indicators analysed, show that the field of research in EU13 Member States requires further structural changes. This report is followed by policy options for mitigating the innovation gap in Europe.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

DG, EPRS-This document presents an update of the STOA study 'Overcoming innovation gaps in the EU-13 Member States'. The study was requested by the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA) within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (DG EPRS) of the European Parliament. Members of the project team were: Michal Pazour, Vladimir Albrecht, Daniel Frank, Vlastimil Ruzicka, Jiri Vanecek, Ondrej Pecha, Zdenek Kucera, Technology Centre CAS, Prague; Edwin Horlings, Barend van der Meulen, Rathenau Institute, The Hague; Leonhard Hennen (ETAG co-ordinator), KIT/ITAS, Karlsruhe. In addition, hypothesis 6 discussed in the present report is obtained from the STOA study ‘Internationalisation of EU research organisations: A bibliometric stocktaking study’, written by Marek Kwiek, Director of the Center for Public Policy Studies, UNESCO Chair in Institutional Research and Higher Education Policy at the University of Poznan, Poland.

'Farm to Fork' strategy: Striving for healthy and sustainable food

17-06-2020

Launched on 20 May 2020, the 'Farm to Fork' strategy put forward the EU’s ambition for making its food system a model of sustainability at all stages of the food value chain. Ahead of the desired engagement of institutions, stakeholders and citizens in a broad debate, the strategy is already high on the agri-food community’s agenda.

Launched on 20 May 2020, the 'Farm to Fork' strategy put forward the EU’s ambition for making its food system a model of sustainability at all stages of the food value chain. Ahead of the desired engagement of institutions, stakeholders and citizens in a broad debate, the strategy is already high on the agri-food community’s agenda.

How to Fully Reap the Benefits of the Internal Market for E-Commerce?

15-06-2020

This paper provides a framework for maximising current and potential benefits of e-commerce for the single market while minimising economic and societal costs. It takes stock of the role of the e-Commerce Directive and analyses new challenges arising in the age of platforms. Forward-looking solutions are presented to enhance cross-border e-commerce in the EU, facilitate access to digital copyrighted content and improve the sustainability of online platforms. Finally, the paper reflects on the planned ...

This paper provides a framework for maximising current and potential benefits of e-commerce for the single market while minimising economic and societal costs. It takes stock of the role of the e-Commerce Directive and analyses new challenges arising in the age of platforms. Forward-looking solutions are presented to enhance cross-border e-commerce in the EU, facilitate access to digital copyrighted content and improve the sustainability of online platforms. Finally, the paper reflects on the planned digital services act, outlining policy recommendations. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Nadina IACOB, Felice SIMONELLI

The Legal Framework for E-commerce in the Internal Market

15-06-2020

This at a glance presents an overview of the current state of play in the area of e-commerce. It discusses the existing legislative framework of the Digital Single Market as well as the technology-driven changes of market and economy that have taken place over the last twenty years. The analysis identifies areas prone to producing a positive reaction to legislative intervention. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request ...

This at a glance presents an overview of the current state of play in the area of e-commerce. It discusses the existing legislative framework of the Digital Single Market as well as the technology-driven changes of market and economy that have taken place over the last twenty years. The analysis identifies areas prone to producing a positive reaction to legislative intervention. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Ida RÜFFER, Carlos NOBREGA, Hans SCHULTE-NÖLKE, Aneta WIEWÓROWSKA-DOMAGALSKA

New aspects and challenges in consumer protection

15-06-2020

The original full study discusses the new challenges and opportunities for digital services that are provided by artificial intelligence, in particular which regard to consumer protection, data protection, and providers’ liability. The discussion addresses the way in which digital services rely on Artificial Intelligence (AI) for processing consumer data and for targeting consumers with ads and other messages, with a focus on risks to consumer privacy and autonomy, as well as on the possibility ...

The original full study discusses the new challenges and opportunities for digital services that are provided by artificial intelligence, in particular which regard to consumer protection, data protection, and providers’ liability. The discussion addresses the way in which digital services rely on Artificial Intelligence (AI) for processing consumer data and for targeting consumers with ads and other messages, with a focus on risks to consumer privacy and autonomy, as well as on the possibility of developing consumer-friendly AI applications. Also addressed is the relevance of AI for the liability of service providers in connection with the use of AI systems for detecting and responding to unlawful and harmful content.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

Prof Dr Giovanni Sartor

What if AI could advance the science surrounding dementia?

10-06-2020

Artificial intelligence could help in the fight against dementia, a rapidly growing public health problem! Which AI applications in dementia diagnosis and treatment are already under way, and what are future directions and implications? What if, in the future, we could have access to human brains like Google maps? What if we could backup our minds and restore it when needed, such as in the case of getting dementia?

Artificial intelligence could help in the fight against dementia, a rapidly growing public health problem! Which AI applications in dementia diagnosis and treatment are already under way, and what are future directions and implications? What if, in the future, we could have access to human brains like Google maps? What if we could backup our minds and restore it when needed, such as in the case of getting dementia?

Blockchain for supply chains and international trade

29-05-2020

This study provides an analysis of blockchain technology in the context of international trade. It analyses the potential impacts of blockchain development and applications in eight use cases for supply chains and international trade. It also provides an analysis of the current legislative framework and existing initiatives. Based on this analysis, and following a broad consultation of relevant organisations, the study identifies several challenges in international trade documentation and processes ...

This study provides an analysis of blockchain technology in the context of international trade. It analyses the potential impacts of blockchain development and applications in eight use cases for supply chains and international trade. It also provides an analysis of the current legislative framework and existing initiatives. Based on this analysis, and following a broad consultation of relevant organisations, the study identifies several challenges in international trade documentation and processes, and presents a range of policy options for the European Parliament.

Autorzy zewnętrzni

This study was written by Bertrand Copigneaux, Nikita Vlasov and Emarildo Bani of IDATE DigiWorld, Nikolay Tcholtchev and Philipp Lämmel of Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems, Michael Fuenfzig, Simone Snoeijenbos and Michael Flickenschild from Ecorys, and Martina Piantoni and Simona Frazzani from Grimaldi Studio Legale at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

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