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As a subject of public international law, the European Union (EU) concludes international agreements with other subjects of international law, i.e. international organisations and states. The EU may enter into such treaties on its own, or jointly with its Member States – depending on the area of competence (exclusive EU competence or shared competences) to which the treaty in question applies. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) enjoys specific competences with regard to the conclusion, interpretation ...

Strengthening Europol's mandate

Briefing 03-06-2021

On 9 December 2020, along with its counter-terrorism agenda, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation to reinforce the mandate of Europol, the EU law enforcement cooperation agency. The proposed regulation principally aims at rendering Europol's cooperation with private parties more effective; at responding to the agency's 'big data challenge', by providing a legal basis for processing large and complex datasets, including personal data of data subjects not related to a crime; ...

On 1 May 2021, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) between the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) entered into force, having been provisionally applied since 1 January 2021. One of the areas covered by the TCA, in its Part Three, is security cooperation between EU and UK law enforcement and judicial authorities in criminal matters. The 13 titles under Part Three contain extensive provisions aimed at enabling the continuation of information exchange, including personal data, between ...

The European Committee of the Regions (CoR or 'the Committee') is one of two European Union (EU) advisory bodies, the other being the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC). The CoR was established by the 1992 Treaty of Maastricht, following a period when regional and local interests had been demanding greater involvement in the European decision-making process. The CoR was set up as an advisory body of the Council and the European Commission, made up of local and regional representatives, ...

National parliaments organise their security in a variety of ways. Whereas in some cases the principles of separation of powers or of parliamentary autonomy prevent police forces from entering parliamentary premises − meaning that these legislative chambers rely on in-house security services – in others the security of parliaments is ensured exclusively by the police or other state forces with responsibilities in the area of security, defence or civil protection. Other national parliaments exhibit ...

This EPRS publication seeks to provide an analytical overview of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) between the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK), which was agreed between the two parties on 24 December and signed by them on 30 December 2020, and has been provisionally applied since 1 January 2021. The European Parliament is currently considering the Agreement with a view to voting on giving its consent to conclusion by the Council on behalf of the Union. The paper analyses many ...

The United Kingdom's 2016 referendum on EU membership triggered the first ever application of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), the withdrawal clause. However, as Article 50 TEU had never been tested, some aspects of the procedure had to be defined in real time, a process that was not without controversy. This EPRS In-depth Analysis looks at how the EU has applied the 'exit clause' that sets out the conditions and procedure to be followed in the event of a Member State wishing to ...

In August 2020, the two major political parties in the United States (US), the Democrats and the Republicans, formally nominated their respective candidates for the 59th US presidential election, which takes place on Tuesday, 3 November 2020. An initially crowded field of contenders in the Democratic primaries developed into a two-horse race between former US Vice-President Joe Biden and Senator Bernie Sanders, with Biden declared the Democratic nominee on 18 August. He will now contest the presidential ...

The European Social and Economic Committee (EESC), established in 1957 by the Treaty of Rome, is one of the two advisory bodies of the European Union (EU). Composed of representatives of various European economic and social groups and categories, such as employers, workers, producers, farmers, liberal professions and civil society organisations, the EESC assists the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission in the policy-making and legislative process, in an advisory capacity. EESC members ...

The coronavirus crisis has put huge pressure on European prisons, already often affected by chronic overcrowding and poor healthcare services. Ensuring strict sanitary conditions, adequate health monitoring and the necessary distancing to prevent an outbreak in these closed environments − particularly vulnerable to contagion − has been a considerable challenge for most, if not all EU Member States. Starting from March 2020, as lockdowns and states of emergency gradually came into force across Europe ...