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Upon request by the Committee on Legal Affairs, this study analysis is mapping across all 28 EU Member States the representation of women and men in legal professions. The aim of this study is to identify areas where women or men are currently underrepresented and to analyse the underlying reasons and constraints.

The present study provides a detailed overview of the actual human rights situation in the frozen conflict regions of EU’s Eastern neighbourhood, namely in Crimea, Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh. The focus of the analysis is on the access to the justice system, as well as on the abilities of the de jure or de facto authorities to administer justice. Particular attention is paid to Crimea because the rapidly worsening human rights situation there affects far more people ...

Upon request by the JURI Committee, this study provides an analysis of existing EU legislation applicable to judicial expertise for the purpose of assessing whether cross-border expertise in the EU is hampered or restricted, and whether steps could be taken to facilitate it and to further develop a genuine European area of civil justice. It concludes that, while existing EU law is largely satisfactory, there are still major issues, and that EU action would be necessary to address them.

Upon request by the JURI Committee, this study investigates the law and practice of arbitration across the European Union and Switzerland. It includes an in-depth examination of the practice and the laws relating to arbitration in each Member State of the European Union and Switzerland, as well as an examination of the involvement of Member States and the European Union in arbitration. While substantial harmony exists across the European Union at both the level of law and practice, the Study finds ...

As the newest country in the world and one emerging from decades of conflict and hardship, South Sudan faces many challenges, including its capacity to promote and protect human rights. The participants in the workshop 'South Sudan: Enhancing capacities for human rights', which took place on 19 March 2013, confirmed that the country's principal problems associated with human rights included lack of laws, protection mechanisms and expertise. Participants offered suggestions for tackling the obstacles ...

This briefing paper tries to explore why mediation is not used more often as a means of dispute resolution. It identifies a number of reasons why mediation is not resorted to more frequently and presents proposals on how legislation could respond to these obstacles. The author wishes to highlight that, ideally, removing these obstacles will lead to an even less frequent use of mediation.

The Reform of the Judiciary in Croatia

Análise aprofundada 16-02-2010

The basic legislative framework governing administration of justice in Croatia is almost complete. Outstanding reforms include adoption of Penal Code and Constitutional amendment, both scheduled for 2010. Professional education and appointment of judges and prosecutors are made subject to objective criteria under the auspices of an independent judicial academy. Gender balance needs improvement as women are underrepresented at higher levels of judicial hierarchy. Backlog of cases is reduced but final ...

Judicial training is vital for the development of a common judicial culture in the EU and for guaranteeing the homogeneous implementation of EC/EU law. The principle of mutual recognition existing in judicial cooperation since the Tampere Programme – and confirmed in the Hague Programme and the future Lisbon Treaty – entails a thorough knowledge of the various EC and EU instruments. Community financial programmes exist today to facilitate Member States’ and other actors’ training costs. The actors ...