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The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has ...

For the EU budget covering the 2021-2027 period, the European Commission proposed to update EU cohesion policy with a new set of rules. The proposal for a Common Provisions Regulation (CPR) set out common provisions for eight shared management funds: the European Regional Development Fund, the Cohesion Fund, the European Social Fund Plus, the Just Transition Fund, the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund, the Asylum and Migration Fund, the Internal Security Fund and the Border Management and Visa ...

In June 2018, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal on a European Defence Fund, including a budget allocation of €11.5 billion in constant 2018 prices for the 2021-2027 period. The proposal aimed to streamline and simplify the set-up in place at the time by integrating the Preparatory Action on Defence Research (research window) and the European Defence Industrial Development Programme (as one part of the capability window) into a single Fund. The main aims of the Fund would be ...

European Defence Fund 2021–2027

Em síntese 21-04-2021

The European Commission presented a proposal for a regulation establishing a European Defence Fund in June 2018. The Fund aims to foster the competitiveness and innovativeness of European defence and to contribute to the EU's strategic autonomy. The Parliament and Council reached a partial agreement in early 2019 and then a provisional political agreement on the outstanding issues in December 2020. The Council adopted its first-reading position in March 2021, and the Parliament is expected to vote ...

The European Commission proposed, in 2018, a new regulation aimed at countering the security threat represented by the spread of terrorist content online. The regulation would require service providers to remove online content posted with the objective to radicalise, recruit or incite to violence, within one hour of receiving a removal order from the competent authorities. The European Parliament is due to vote at second reading during its April plenary session on the agreed text reached in trilogue ...

This briefing finds that the European Commission's impact assessment (IA), which accompanies the directive proposal on the resilience of critical entities, provides a good evidence-based problem definition and a sufficiently broad range of options. The assessment is mostly qualitative, due to difficulties in quantification. The IA could have been more transparent in its description of stakeholder views, and could have provided due references and a link to the feasibility study which has supported ...

Drawing on the findings of an evaluation of the NIS directive, the IA generally seems to provide a clear and relevant analysis of the shortcomings of the existing NIS Directive and the available policy options for their improvement by a new legal act. It appears that the IA's assumptions are based on a thorough stocktaking exercise involving the consultation of a big number of stakeholders. The IA could however have explained in closer detail practical implications of the proposed initiative. It ...

Council Directive 2008/114/EC is part of the EU framework for critical infrastructure protection. While embracing an all-hazards approach, its scope is limited to the sectors energy and transport. This is widely considered a shortcoming. Calls for broadening its scope and for refocussing the directive on resilience rather than just protection, and interconnectivity of critical infrastructures resulted in a new legislative proposal the Commission presented in December 2020.

This paper looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has directly and indirectly affected European security and defence. It documents how missions and operations of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) were directly impacted. It finds that COVID-19 has accentuated already recognised capacity shortfalls of the CSDP, such as strategic airlift, secure communications and command and control. Defence spending through EU instruments, and to a lesser extent at national level, has come under pressure although ...

Faced with a persistent international terrorist threat, the European Union (EU) is playing an ever more ambitious role in counter-terrorism. Even though primary responsibility for combating crime and ensuring security lies with the Member States, the EU provides cooperation, coordination and (to some extent) harmonisation tools, as well as financial support, to address this borderless phenomenon. Moreover, the assumption that there is a connection between development and stability, as well as between ...