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Looking back on the implosion of the Soviet Union in late 1991, this Briefing reflects on the debate in the Parliament about its possible consequences at the time. It shows that a clear majority of MEPs initially remained keen on the transformation of the Soviet Union into some kind of 'new Union'. They were concerned both about the dire economic situation in several Soviet republics, and about the maintenance of effective control over the Soviet Union's huge nuclear arsenal. Since 1988 the EP, like ...

From 12 to 17 June 2022, the World Trade Organization (WTO) held an extended 12th ministerial conference (MC12), after it had been postponed twice owing to the pandemic. Although the outcome of the MC12 was the result of hard-won compromises, it covers a wide range of key agenda items and may be said to provide new momentum for the WTO, which critics have often portrayed as moribund. The WTO has proved its centrality for crafting multilateral solutions for global challenges, notably against the backdrop ...

Russia’s war on Ukraine has sent global food prices soaring. It has fuelled inflation in the European Union, the United States and many other countries, while threatening hunger in some poorer regions. Russia and Ukraine play a major role in food and fertiliser supply. They export about 30 per cent of the world’s wheat and 75 per cent of its sunflower oil. Some countries in Africa and the Middle East are nearly 100-per cent dependent on Russian or Ukrainian food. According to the United Nations Food ...

This analysis looks into the complex relationship between two trends in international governance: an increase in multilateral arrangements between countries in order to govern internationally on the one hand, and a lack of democratic control over the decisions taken by multilateral organisations or conferences on the other. Multilateralism in the modern sense refers to an international mode of operation involving peaceful negotiations and diplomacy, also referred to as a ‘rules-based international ...

2021 Report on Serbia

Em síntese 29-06-2022

Serbia, a country with a population of 6.9 million, has been advancing towards EU accession since 2012, when it received candidate country status. Despite some progress, Serbia faces three major issues: improving internal political dialogue, reaching a comprehensive legally binding normalisation agreement with Kosovo* and ensuring better alignment with EU foreign policy. The Parliament's position on the European Commission's 2021 annual report on Serbia is expected to be voted in plenary in July ...

2021 Report on Kosovo

Em síntese 29-06-2022

With a population of 1.8 million (93 % ethnic Albanians), Kosovo* unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008. Kosovo's perspective of a European future was stated during summits in Thessaloniki (2003), Sofia (2018) and, recently, Zagreb (2020), Brdo (2021) and Brussels (2022), where EU leaders reaffirmed their unequivocal support for the Western Balkans' European perspective. The European Parliament is expected to debate the European Commission's 2021 annual report on the country during ...

2021 Report on Bosnia and Herzegovina

Em síntese 29-06-2022

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), with a population of 3.8 million, became independent from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992, following a referendum that was boycotted by ethnic Serbs. Bosnia and Herzegovina was offered an EU membership perspective during the EU-Western Balkans summit in Thessaloniki (2003), subsequently restated in Sofia (2018), Zagreb (2020), Brdo (2021) and, most recently, Brussels (2022). The Parliament is expected to vote on the European Commission's 2021 annual report on BiH ...

'This is Europe' – an initiative proposed by the President of the European Parliament, Roberta Metsola – consists of a series of debates with EU leaders to discuss their visions for the future of the European Union. On 22 June, the Prime Minister of Croatia, Andrej Plenković, was the third EU leader to address the Parliament since its Conference of Presidents endorsed the initiative on 28 April. Mr Plenković considered Croatia to be at the centre of EU integration and expressed his support for more ...

The six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo,* Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) are all countries with substantial economic catch-up potential. The EU-led Berlin Process estimated an annual investment need of some €7.7 billion, which would provide the region with an additional 1 % GDP growth and a positive employment effect of up to 200 000 people. However, quality investments are scarce, or often attached to political, environmental and social conditionalities ...

The following is a qualitative, comparative analysis of international state and non-state mechanisms and tools aimed at protecting and ensuring the safety of journalists, and the extent to which they are used and valued in three non-EU countries: the Philippines, El Salvador and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on the role of the EU in using and strengthening its own and other international instruments. The findings are based on 15 expert interviews and a literature review carried out between mid-February ...