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Questo studio fa parte di un progetto più ampio, il cui scopo è quello di analizzare, nella prospettiva del diritto comparato, i princìpi di eguaglianza e di non discriminazione in diversi Stati ed organizzazioni internazionali. Il presente studio è dedicato all'Italia. Dopo un breve inquadramento storico, vengono esaminate le norme giuridiche che hanno interessato il principio di eguaglianza, nelle sue varie forme, nella Repubblica italiana. Il punto di partenza è, ovviamente, la Costituzione, mentre ...

This report analyses the options under international law for the confiscation of Russian state assets to support Ukraine's reconstruction. It focuses on Russian Central Bank assets, US$300 billion of which are frozen in various jurisdictions. The report considers four avenues for overcoming Russia's immunity from enforcement: avoidance of immunity through purely executive or legislative action; justification for the breach of international law on the grounds that it is a countermeasure; evolution ...

Os desafios globais, nomeadamente as alterações climáticas, os conflitos geopolíticos, a erosão dos princípios democráticos e as desigualdades sociais, afetam o dia a dia e as perspetivas futuras das pessoas. Uma resposta europeia coletiva ao longo dos próximos dez anos poderá ajudar a resolver estes desafios e a proporcionar benefícios de até três biliões de euros por ano, o que representa cerca de 18 % do produto interno bruto (PIB) da UE, equivalendo a 6 700 euros por cidadão por ano. No que se ...

In its first ten years (2014-2023), the banking union was successful in its prudential agenda but failed spectacularly in its underlying objective: establishing a single banking market in the euro area. This goal is now more important than ever, and easier to attain than at any time in the last decade. To make progress, cross-border banks should receive a specific treatment within general banking union legislation. Suggestions are made on how to make such regulatory carve-out effective and legally ...

EPRS invites leading experts and commentators to share their thinking and insights on important topics of relevance to debate in the European institutions. In this paper, Bruce Stokes, visiting senior fellow at the German Marshall Fund of the United States, and associate fellow at Chatham House, offers an overview of US-EU relations since the passage of the US Inflation Reduction Act in 2022. This paper is based on the author's interviews with leading European and US experts and published analysis ...

Over the past 25 years, the euro faced various crises, prompting a reassessment of its governance. Concerns arise regarding the ECB's exposure to risk and the necessity of deep reforms for managing growing ecological, financial, and geo-economic risks. Despite initial achievements like the banking union, challenges persist, such as financial instability and economic fragmentation. Policymakers must address these risks through enhanced monetary and macroprudential policies, fiscal coordination, and ...

This study provides an overview of the current state of play in selectivity developments in EU fisheries by i) outlining the existing technical (gear) and tactical selectivity measures to reduce unwanted catches; ii) identifying best practices from projects that have successfully improved selectivity; and iii) analysing how EU funding have been used by Member States for promoting increased selectivity. Based on these results, policy recommendations for EU policymakers on potential actions to improve ...

Today's European Parliament is an influential advocate and player in European Union environmental policy. Even before the 1979 direct elections, its Members took a keen interest in emerging new policy issues – such as the environment. When a dramatic fish kill occurred in the River Rhine, western Europe's major cross-border river and worst 'sewer', Members of the European Parliament used the attention in the European public sphere to argue and demand that the European Community should have an environmental ...

This paper reviews the record of European Central Bank policymaking since the 2010-12 euro crisis in order to develop recommendations on: (1) the ECB’s future monetary policy strategy, (2) its operational framework, and (3) the governance of European Economic and Monetary Union. This document was provided by the Economic Governance and EMU Scrutiny Unit at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with the ECB President on 15 February 2024 ...

During the first decades of European integration, the European Community's social dimension was only rudimentary, and its main objective was to compensate for the negative effects of the common market. This briefing sheds light on the European Parliament's early role in the evolution of social policy as one of the fields in which the Community had only limited consultative competences, yet which saw increasing Community activity during the 'long 1970s'. The briefing discusses how Members and Parliament ...