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A new directive on work-life balance

02-04-2019

Despite significant progress for some social groups in the area of work-life balance, there has been a general trend of decline since 2011, and progress amongst Member States has been uneven. This proposed directive (complemented with non-legislative measures) should lead to the repeal of the existing Framework Agreement on Parental Leave, made binding by Council Directive 2010/18/EU (the Parental Leave Directive). The new directive contains proposals for paternity, parental and carers’ leave. Stakeholders ...

Despite significant progress for some social groups in the area of work-life balance, there has been a general trend of decline since 2011, and progress amongst Member States has been uneven. This proposed directive (complemented with non-legislative measures) should lead to the repeal of the existing Framework Agreement on Parental Leave, made binding by Council Directive 2010/18/EU (the Parental Leave Directive). The new directive contains proposals for paternity, parental and carers’ leave. Stakeholders have been divided over the level of ambition of the proposed measures. Trilogue negotiations started in September 2018, and a provisional agreement among the three institutions was reached after the sixth trilogue meeting, in January 2019. The provisional agreement is less ambitious than the original Commission proposal and the Parliament’s position, which had, in some ways, gone further than the Commission. The text was approved by the Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee in February 2019, and now needs to be adopted in plenary. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

The rights of LGBTI people in the European Union

12-06-2018

The prohibition of discrimination and the protection of human rights are important elements of the EU legal order. Nevertheless, discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons persists throughout the EU, taking various forms including verbal abuse and physical violence. Sexual orientation is now recognised in EU law as grounds of discrimination. However, the scope of these provisions is limited and does not cover social protection, healthcare, education and ...

The prohibition of discrimination and the protection of human rights are important elements of the EU legal order. Nevertheless, discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons persists throughout the EU, taking various forms including verbal abuse and physical violence. Sexual orientation is now recognised in EU law as grounds of discrimination. However, the scope of these provisions is limited and does not cover social protection, healthcare, education and access to goods and services, leaving LGBTI people particularly vulnerable in these areas. Moreover, EU competence does not extend to recognition of marital or family status. In this area, national regulations vary, with some Member States offering same-sex couples the right to marry, others allowing alternative forms of registration, and yet others not providing any legal status for same-sex couples. Same-sex couples may or may not have the right to adopt children and to access assisted reproduction. These divergent legal statuses have implications, for instance, for partners from two Member States with different standards who want to formalise/legalise their relationship or for same-sex couples and their families wishing to move to another Member State. Combating discrimination has become part of EU internal and external policies, and the subject of numerous resolutions of the European Parliament. However, action in this area remains problematic when it touches on issues pertaining to areas traditionally reserved to Member States, such as marital status and family law. This is a further updated version of a Briefing originally drafted by Piotr Bakowski. The previous edition was published in May 2017.

Igualdade entre homens e mulheres

01-04-2018

A igualdade entre homens e mulheres constitui um dos objetivos da União Europeia. A legislação, a jurisprudência e as alterações aos Tratados têm contribuído, ao longo do tempo, para reforçar este princípio e a sua aplicação na União Europeia. O Parlamento Europeu sempre foi um acérrimo defensor do princípio da igualdade entre homens e mulheres.

A igualdade entre homens e mulheres constitui um dos objetivos da União Europeia. A legislação, a jurisprudência e as alterações aos Tratados têm contribuído, ao longo do tempo, para reforçar este princípio e a sua aplicação na União Europeia. O Parlamento Europeu sempre foi um acérrimo defensor do princípio da igualdade entre homens e mulheres.

Gender equality in the media and digital sectors

06-03-2018

International Women's Day provides an opportunity both to celebrate women's achievements and to take stock of progress towards gender equality. This year, the European Parliament is highlighting the situation in the media and digital sectors, with a report scheduled for debate during the March plenary session, following a high-level event on 8 March itself.

International Women's Day provides an opportunity both to celebrate women's achievements and to take stock of progress towards gender equality. This year, the European Parliament is highlighting the situation in the media and digital sectors, with a report scheduled for debate during the March plenary session, following a high-level event on 8 March itself.

Sexism in advertising

05-03-2018

Women continue to be misrepresented in the media, which has negative consequences for the personal and professional development of both women and men. Due to its purpose and pervasiveness, advertising can be especially powerful in conveying messages, both positive and negative. The European Parliament has recognised the importance of combating sexism in advertising, and called on the Commission and the Member States to step up their efforts.

Women continue to be misrepresented in the media, which has negative consequences for the personal and professional development of both women and men. Due to its purpose and pervasiveness, advertising can be especially powerful in conveying messages, both positive and negative. The European Parliament has recognised the importance of combating sexism in advertising, and called on the Commission and the Member States to step up their efforts.

Gender equality in the EU’s digital and media sectors

01-03-2018

As the ‘digital revolution’ expands into more areas of our lives, from the way we work, to how we consume, look after our health, learn and take part in politics, it is increasingly clear that this is not just a purely technical – or economic – process, but also a social one, and one which is not gender-neutral. Analysis of the risks and benefits finds that new information and communication technologies can be a gateway for women and girls to access new opportunities, means of expression and participation ...

As the ‘digital revolution’ expands into more areas of our lives, from the way we work, to how we consume, look after our health, learn and take part in politics, it is increasingly clear that this is not just a purely technical – or economic – process, but also a social one, and one which is not gender-neutral. Analysis of the risks and benefits finds that new information and communication technologies can be a gateway for women and girls to access new opportunities, means of expression and participation, and a powerful tool for advancing gender equality. In employment, for example, the digital sector offers highly skilled, better-paid jobs that could help to eliminate the gender pay gap. Likewise, the convergence between traditional and online media is blurring the boundaries between consumers and creators, and opening spaces for new voices, forms of awareness-raising and mobilisation – as the recent wave of ‘hashtag activism’ against sexual harassment has shown. On the other hand, if access is unequal, if algorithms or content available online are gender biased or do not reflect women’s needs and realities, or if women themselves are not involved in shaping that content, digitalisation can reinforce existing gender inequalities. It can also create new risks and barriers, not least the colonisation of online spaces by misogyny and cyber-violence. The need to ensure digital inclusion, and tackle gender stereotyping and other barriers to access, skills, representation and safety affecting women and girls has been recognised globally in the Sustainable Development Goals, and within the EU’s Digital Single Market Strategy, together with the need for better data to inform action. The existing data point to a global digital gender divide. Within the EU, this is not so much a question of women and girls lacking basic internet access or skills – although there are gender differences, and the number of women who have never used the internet remains significant (14 % of women compared to 12 % of men). The gender gaps are much wider in advanced IT skills, tertiary education, employment and decision-making in the digital sector, with girls and women less likely to continue studying science and technology beyond the age of 15, enter or continue a career in ICT, reach specialist and managerial levels or start their own tech companies. Research highlights that children’s perceptions of their own abilities and career aspirations are shaped early, and strongly influenced by attitudes and expectations in families, peer groups, schools, and wider society – including limiting or positive images, messages and role models conveyed by traditional and new media. Media monitoring shows that there has been some progress, but women continue to be under-represented as reporters and decision-makers and misrepresented in coverage across the news media as well as in film and other sectors.

Violence against women and the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention

15-11-2017

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. This study has three main objectives: 1) providing an overview of the progress made by EU Member States in the area of violence against women; 2) presenting the state of play of the ratification or implementation of the Istanbul Convention by Member States; and 3) analysing the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention and its consequences ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. This study has three main objectives: 1) providing an overview of the progress made by EU Member States in the area of violence against women; 2) presenting the state of play of the ratification or implementation of the Istanbul Convention by Member States; and 3) analysing the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention and its consequences. The study concludes with policy recommendations on the role of the European Parliament in monitoring the process of implementation of the Istanbul Convention.

Autor externo

Athena CHRISTOFI, Elena FRIES-TERSCH, Nathalie MEURENS, Catarina MONTEIRO, Sophie MOREL, Hana SPANIKOVA, Milieu.

Discrimination and access to employment for female workers with disabilities

22-06-2017

The aim of this study is to exploit existing data and information on the access of women with disabilities to the labour market, in order to assess how multiple discrimination – gender and disability – affects the employment opportunities of these women. In addition, the study analyses whether and how the EU legislative and national policy frameworks address the multiple discrimination faced by women with disabilities. This combines a gender mainstreaming approach, such as the internalisation of ...

The aim of this study is to exploit existing data and information on the access of women with disabilities to the labour market, in order to assess how multiple discrimination – gender and disability – affects the employment opportunities of these women. In addition, the study analyses whether and how the EU legislative and national policy frameworks address the multiple discrimination faced by women with disabilities. This combines a gender mainstreaming approach, such as the internalisation of a gender perspective in all disability policies and legislation, with specific measures targeted to women with disabilities. The study also includes clear indications on implementation and monitoring mechanisms. The analysis is based on available European comparative data and in-depth analysis of seven European Member States.

Autor externo

Istituto per la ricerca sociale: Manuela Samek Lodovici, Nicola Orlando, Daniela Loi, Serena Marianna Drufuca, Flavia Pesce ; Country experts: Denmark: Bent Greve ; France: Anne Eydoux ; Germany: Flavia Pesce ; Italy: Flavia Pesce ; Poland: Malgorzata Grabarek and Izabela Przybysz ; Spain: Elvira González Gago and Nuria Guilló Rodríguez

The use of EU funds for gender equality in Poland

15-05-2017

This research article was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality. It was commissioned, overseen and published by the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. The focus of the study is to assess how gender equality funds for 2014-2020 are allocated in Poland. The focus is mainly on the ESIF's funding within the National and Regional Operational Programmes, as well as the Horizon 2020 and the REC Programmes on the Gender Equality ...

This research article was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality. It was commissioned, overseen and published by the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. The focus of the study is to assess how gender equality funds for 2014-2020 are allocated in Poland. The focus is mainly on the ESIF's funding within the National and Regional Operational Programmes, as well as the Horizon 2020 and the REC Programmes on the Gender Equality Objective, and the follow-up of Daphne Programmes on violence against women. The reference period is 2014-2016. The report presents to what extent the rules of projects' selection procedures determine the implementation of gender equality principles within operational programmes.

Autor externo

Małgorzata Druciarek & Izabela Przybysz, Institute of Public Affairs, Poland

Empowering women in the EU and beyond: Education and reproductive health

02-03-2017

In the EU, gender equality in education and several other policy areas is protected by law. In practice, however, full gender equality has still not been achieved. Beyond the EU, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has found that millions of girls are still being denied an education. Therefore, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) is calling for all countries to repeal discriminatory laws that create barriers ...

In the EU, gender equality in education and several other policy areas is protected by law. In practice, however, full gender equality has still not been achieved. Beyond the EU, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has found that millions of girls are still being denied an education. Therefore, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) is calling for all countries to repeal discriminatory laws that create barriers for women and girls not only in education, but also in access to healthcare, decent jobs and equal pay. The right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is not only an integral part of the general right to health but is also fundamentally linked to the enjoyment of many other human rights, according to UN experts.

Futuros eventos

13-11-2019
Understanding EU environment policy: State-of-play and future challenges
Outro evento -
EPRS
20-11-2019
Europe's Future: Where next for EU institutional Reform?
Outro evento -
EPRS

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